Chapter 9 notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

CHAPTER 9 PLANETARY GEOLOGY 91Mars has the solar systems largest volcanoes and a huge canyon cutting across its surface along with numerous features that have to be shaped by running waterSeismic waves are vibrations that travel both through the interior and along the surface after an earthquakeAll terrestrial planets have layered interiors that include core mantle and crust o Core highest density material consisting of metals such as nickel and iron in the central core o Mantle rocky materials of moderate densitymost minerals that contain silicon oxygen and other elementsforms the thick mantle that surrounds the core o Crust the lowest density rock such as granite and basalt volcanic rock forms the thin crust essentially representing the surface Lithosphere is defined by the strength of rock rather than by densityEarth has a solid inner core and a molten liquid outer coreA planets outer layer consists of relatively cool and rigid rock called the lithosphereSmaller planets tend to have thicker lithospheres Thick lithosphere prevent the flow of molten rock from below making volcanic eruptions and the formation of mountain ranges less likelyGeological activity is used to describe the change in surface overtime eg volcanoes erosion earthquakes Moon and mercury have no geological activity Planet interiors contain a lot of thermal energy and the law of conservation of energy tells us that this energy must have come from somewhere Not the Sun The energy primarily comes from 3 sources Heat of accretion heat from differentiation and heat from radioactive decay o Heat of accretion caused by colliding planetesimals Convert gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy which upon impact is converted into thermal energy o Heat from differentiation light materials rise to the surface while dense materials sink to the core converting gravitational potential energy into thermal energy o Heat from radioactive decay massenergy in the nuclei of rock and metals that build terrestrial planets is converted into thermal energy
More Less

Related notes for AST101H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.