AST101 Lecture 14

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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Dan Dolderman

how do craters form? • Mercury or moon – surface that hasn't been melted or eroded – craters overlap one another • for earth we don't see them, we only see the recent (unclear) ones • earth orbits the sun at 30 km every second • escape speed of earth 11 km • if an object makes its way through the atmosphere – fast enough to vaporize rock (in earth most of the objects will be vaporized) shock waves of craters • raised central region – big object that comes in = shock waves through the rocks • shock waves can bounce off other layers of other rocks causing the central regions to bounce up click quiz • dropping a bowling ball into a sandbox from the top of the CN tower and it leaves a depression • Q: is this depression the same as a crater on mercury or the moon? • A: no • explanation: difference in distance from the object being dropped, it will not vaporize shaping planet surfaces what can erase craters • erosion • tectonics – surface of earth is moving = continental plates are moving (the ground they are on is subducted and melted) • volcanoes – earths core still hot = layers over the surface of earth with magma/lava erosion • grinds stuff down (mountains) plate tectonics • earth and venus – active geology (heat coming out of earth, convective motion in the mantle – tectonic plates – causing seduction zones = crust is melting releasing lava • tectonic plates are driving volcanoes clicker quiz • Q: icy moon of saturn (enceladus) - which part of its su
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