AST101H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Liquid Hydrogen, Metallic Hydrogen, Solar Wind

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venus vs. earth
not much difference
venus surface – hotter than melting point of lead
placing earth at location of venus = same environment as venus
higher surface temperature = more evaporation of water
water = strong greenhouse gas (absorbs, not a negative feedback cycle such as the carbon
cycle)
drain carbon dioxide from atmosphere = cooling back down
above boiling point of water = oceans evaporate
atmospheric structure
troposphere = temperature declining
stratosphere = increasing temperature
point 1:
weight of atmosphere above is what leads to atmospheric having pressure (pressure
from weight above)
ex. swimming pool = going down = weight of water causes pressure and pain ears
point 2:
sunshine warms the surface of earth (heat cant escape = warms the air = warm air
rises)
atmosphere = moving around
individual bits of air = traveling up and down (higher and lower pressure)
point 3:
air = gas
cooling of gas = consequence of conservation of energy
result of air traveling up (high to low pressure = cools off) and down (low to high
pressure = heats up)
iclicker:
A: what could be heating the uppermost layers of planetary atmospheres?
Q: ultraviolet sunlight
earth vs. mars
atmospheric difference – presence of magnetic field
mars use to have magnetic field
magnetic field
magnetic field decays over time
surface rocks can hold onto magnetic effect for a long time
3 ingredients
1.
2. up and down
3. rotation to organize things (difference between pole and equator)
sun has all three ingredients = strong magnetic field (causes solar wind)
earth's magnetic field
protects it from solar wind
most of solar wind does not touch our atmosphere (it goes around)
jupiter
strong magnetic field
two points from north and south - magnetic field has gone out and passed aurorae
(smashed into jupiter) connects to inner most moon
materials in solar nebula
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