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AST201H1 (200)
Lecture

matter, spectroscopy, doppler shift


Department
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Course Code
AST201H1
Professor
Stefan Mochnacki

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Lecture 5
MATTER
-matter is made of atoms
-1 AU= 215 solar radii (radius of the sun)
ATOMIC TERMINOLOY
Atomic number= # of protons in nucleus (+ charged)
Atomic mass number= # of protons + neutrons
Molecules= consist of 2 or more atoms (H2O, CO2)
Isotope= same # of protons but different # of neutrons
WHAT ARE THE PHASES OF MATTER
Solid (ice)
Liquid (water)
Gas (water vapor)
-phases of same material behave differently because of differences in chemical
bonds
-phase changes
ionization: stripping of electrons, changing atoms into plasma
dissociation: breaking of molecules into atoms
evaporation: breaking of flexible chemical bonds, changing liquid into solid
melting: breaking of rigid chemical bonds, changing solid into liquid
-phases and pressure
phase of a substance depends on both temperature and pressure
often more than one phase is present
How is energy stored in atoms?
Electrons in atoms are restricted to particular energy levels
Atom consists of a nucleus (+) and electrons (-) in a cloud of “orbits around it
Electrons gain energy by dropping into another electron level closer to the
nucleus
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