Department

Biology

Course Code

BIO120H1

Professor

Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Bio lab 13

Measurment error reflects the discrepancy between our repeated measurment and the ture value of

the object being measured.

Precision and accurancy:

Precision t is the repeatability of the measurement.

If a single measurement when repeated shows little little variation, it ahs high precision, if it shows great

variation, it has low precision

Accurancy t is the tendency for the measured value to be close to, or apporximate, the true accepted

value.

Significant figures~

Measurement contain three parts t unit, scale factor and significant figures

Scientific notation~

Rounding numbers:

Less than 5 unchange~

Larger than 5 roung up

5 t before is even t unchange odd t roung up

Organized data:

Qualitative: such as hair colour, sex or something something are easy to group

Quantitative t discrete and continuous

Use a table or a figure to presenting data

Dependent variable plot on y-axis, and independent variable plot on x-axis

Line of best fit: a line which travels through the space pccupied by most of the points

Interpolation: line of best fit allow us to predict the data that is not one of the plot points

Extropolation: extending the line beyond the existing data t provide the base for prediction

Bar graph t used for discrete data

Historgram t used for continuous data

Statistics of location: describe the position of a sample along a given dimension.

Most common statistics location t mean, median and mode t usually called the measures of central

tendency.

Mean: calculated by divide the sum of the data by the number of individuals involve in the experiment

Median: middle value t odd number t the middle; even number t divided the middle two by 2.

Mode: the most frequently appear data

Note: median will become a better estimate of central tendency than mean under the situation that

there are some extreme data which tend to bias the mean in their direction.

Statistics of dispersion t variabiliy, used to describe how broad the set of data could be, narrow or wide

t simplest form t the range

Most common ~ vatiance and standard deviation and standard error

Range: the difference between the largest data and the smallest

Variance: measyre of how much scatter there is around the mean

Standard deviation: the square root of variance t average size of the deviation from the mean, symbol -s

Standard error: measure how reliable the sample mean is as an approximation to the population mean.

^AlOv

^µv[-test and chi-square test:

t-distribution: a distribution of the differences between two samples which are taken from the same

population that we can obtain simply by chance.

Bell-shaped and symmetrical t-distribution

This test is used to compare the means of two samples and assesses whether or not they differ enough

to represent samples from different population.

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