BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Paper Clip, Craig Venter, Metabolome
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Lecture 1: DNA & Chromosomes
- That DNA in the background of doing its job as template to make
RNA is actually being replicated & associated with that replication is
going to be some sort of organization with the DNA – how the genome
is organized (all the genes in your body).
- Associated with that & the process that is going to be necessary in
order to get that DNA to actually make that RNA, there is going to have
to be some regulation there. When we arrive at that regulation, going to
generate not just all RNA molecules but a subset of them & that’s
known as the transciptome. The process of translation itself is going to
be regulated to give rise again to subset of molecules/proteins known as
- Proteins don’t exist in isolation – bunch of different proteins
interacting with each other – this is known as the interactome &
working together, going to generate the diversity of metabolic processes
that take place in your cells – the metabolome.
- There is going to be cross-talk & inter-regulation b/w all of these –
central dogma looks very complex now – better reflection of the
amazing things that are going on in our cells. Together they give rise to
the people we are right now – what geneticists call the phenotype or in
grand terms what we call the phenome.
- Not only do we make all these things, but we also have to get rid of
them as well.
Genome - 1st part of central dogma: DNA.
Genome: full complement of genes in an organism.
**Don’t need to know the specifics of dates – Want us to know the
generality of when things occur though**
- 1st eukaryotic genome: yeast Saccharomyces cerivisiae – getting
larger (12 Mbp) – started to see then building up an idea what made an
organism – what was the set of instructions that DNA that was found in
each organism, that entire complement of genes that are there.
- 1st animal genome: nematode worm.
- 1st plant genome: model plant Arabidopsis thaliana – model plant is an
organism that one uses to better understand the biology overall of a
particular group of organisms.
- Getting feeling now for how many genes are necessary to give rise to
the organismal diversity that we see in front of us every day.
- 1st mammalian genome was the mouse.
- Gives you impression of the timeline of what we know about genome
– about the info being collected, growing at an ever increasing rate.
- Diversity of genome sequences start to give us a better feeling for what
is going on in terms of the genes that are necessary to give rise to
- This gives us the feeling of the rate of which genome sequencing is
increasing since ’95 when 1st genome was published (Haemophilus
influenzae genome) until last year 2007 you can see a logarithmic
increase in the amount of genome sequencing that’s been done such that
now greater than 600 genomes since 1995.
- Where it used to take weeks to sequence things, now it takes days to
sequence whole genomes. As a consequence of that, we’re able to enter
the so-called the personal genome era.