BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Autotroph, Cyanobacteria

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3 Feb 2013
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BIOB50 LEC 4
Species Ranges:
Envi determines species
We know what species are there
When species appear outside of its range we’re very interested
Eg. Grey Owl - Normally extends to northern but also in southern Ontario (1x)
Eg. Arctic Bird - Willow tarmagan bird
Ecology is derived from energy = currency by which org interact
Whether they are competing for resources
Predator prey organisms (consuming another)
Parasites steal nrg
It’s all about energy
Most organisms its from sunlight
Earth is bomboarded with energy but small proportion ends up in biomass of plants
(1%)
And into herbivores a small amt of biomass - (10%) then to others and others
Energy is important b/c quickly drops off to amt of total energy available
If nrg transfer efficient should see plant grows leaves it’s eaten right away
Nrg is limited especially for top predator so how they find nrg is important to their
survival
Also why we don’t see top top top predators (min nrg available to sustain population)
Sources of Energy
Autotrophs either thru photo or chem.
Mainly from photo however
Take c02 and water and turning into sugar 02
Figure 19.3 G. Tansley 1935
Fixed by autotrophs into chem. Nrg avail to other org
1935 1st time to view a system this way : pond
all the mutual interactions are possible b/c of input of solar radiation
arrows being energy flow (going in 1 direction)
interconnected species b/c of flow of energy
Primary Production
nrg rep by carbon is currency to measure productivity
movement of carbon is our energy currency
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BIOB50 LEC 4
measure amt of carbon moved to sys by measuring primary productivity ( how much
carbon are autotrophs fixing to turn into biomass - is made into sugar) think as the
GDP of economy how much resource available
GPP total C fixed by autotroph in ecosystem
Depends on climate (rainfall, moisture, temp) as well as LAI how much ground is
covered by leaves?
LAI
Varies among biomes Arctic - 0.1 only 10% covered by leaves (10% of area is
photosyn)
12 in boreal 12 layers of 100% leaf cover
LAI = 1 means that 100% of ground is covered by leaves
Another layer on top of that making larger than 1
Benefit of multiple layers single layer can’t capture all solar radiation
Diminishing returns
additional layers can capture more energy but not as equally efficient
Layer 15 (top layer) moving thru day getting to…
going to mid day uptake of C is high = 1.2 g/m2/hour
down to leaf layer 1 only taking a small amt of C at that same time
top layers are beneficial more than bottom layers
can calculate things like:
how much leaves respire ? what is optimal leaf layers to have?
At some point these lower layers will respire more than c02 they take up net waste
What is net c02 uptake by diff leaf layers the yellow line is the graph linear inc w/
layer inc more layers more net c02 uptake
Prim prod
How much c02 taken up by plants?
NPP = GPP(total C taken up by plants) respiration (plants need to grow and
reproduce too)
What is nrg left over for storage in biomass? storage of C
At night plants don’t photosyn – but produce c02 as they respire
Storage is the one available for all the other organisms
Remote sensing of terrestrial NPP (how to measure?)
Hi rates in warm regions
Low rates in cold regions
Prim Production
Conceptually, we mean the whole plants.
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