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BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Multicellular Organism, Rudolf Virchow, Archaea

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Can be tiny microscopic ; Sharing planet with huge diversity ; Study of living organisms ( study of life,
bio=science); to investigate living organisms
Organization/Hierarchy of Life
•Living organisms function and interact with each other at many levels
•These levels are organized in a hierarchy of increasing complexity:
Atom(o), molecule(atp), (H,C,N), (adenine), macromolecule(DNA), organelle(nucleus), (nerve cell)
cell(neuron), tissue(ganglion), organ(brain), organism(fish), population, community(coral reef), biosphere
Organismal level Tissue (nerve tissue) , organ (brain), organ system ( nervous system), organism
Populational level Population, species, community, ecosystem
Cellular level
macro = large, large number of diff atoms in specific way
Put atom together get simple molecule ex hydrogen peroxide H2O
Blueprint of life, heredity
DNA found in nucleus (organelle with nuclear membrane)
Cell has plasma membrane ( may contain nucleus)
Organismal level
Coordinate function together = nerve cell
functions as result of cell -> tissue -> system
Populational level
(Population) of geese (species) = aquatic traits to swim
Insects w/ invertebrates ( community/ecosystem) external factors that affect
Biological Diversity: Organization by Cell Types
1. Prokaryotes (bacteria, archaea)
2. Eukaryotes (brown algae, green algae, plants, amoeba, fungi, animals)
How to study biological diversity ? – look at cell (base unit of life in bio)
Unicellular (one cell) have all info needed to function
Prokaryotic Cell Basic structure:
•cell enclosed by… plasma membrane which lack … a NUCLEUS and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE and lack compartments
–smaller and simpler in structure than eukaryotes
–resemble the earliest cells to arise on earth most ancient biological organisms
Ex Bacteria
Cell membrane, cell wall, some have cell capsule, has nuclear region (DNA)
Makes protein from ribosome
Division by fission
No sexual so asexual reproduction genetic duplicates, cell divides pinch. Division of cell into 2 split clones produce
clone genetically identical
Eukaryotic Cell
-larger, more complex … than prokaryotic cells
-surrounded by a plasma membrane: semi permeable … separate animal cell from outside environment
-has a nucleus , … nuclear membrane
- has many membrane-enclosed compartments

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Eukaryotes: Plants
Photosynthesis produce oxygen
respond to stimuli like wind
Absorb energy from the sun and convert it to
energy it can use
Can do just fine without other organisms but
other organisms cant
Photosynthesis IN CHLOROPLAST
Carbon dioxide + water + light
sugar(glucose) + oxygen
Plants SELF SUFFICIENT produce glucose other
organism use
Eukaryotes: Animals
Mobility, physics and metabolism (make internal
Cannot manufacture themselves, cannot make
their own food
Ingest other organisms, mobile, ie BEAR
Eukaryotes: Fungi
Obtain food from dead organisms some toxic
Non photosynthetic, absorb nutrients from other
Most are decomposers
Nutritional partners of numerous plants
Eukaryotes: Protists
Catch other paramecium (uni) catch bacteria ; seaweed = multi cellular
•all eukaryotes that do not fit into the kingdoms of plants, animals, or fungi often grouped according to lifestyle
Unicellular (PROTIST) and multicellular (HUMAN)
Biological Diversity related but different
•emphasis on the concept of
common ancestor
•organisms are grouped in ways that attempt to define
evolutionary … relationships
Properties of Life cellular lifeBASIC properties :
1. Order and Cellular Organization are composed of at least one cell paramecium, protest unicell
2. Metabolism/Energy Utilization chemical reactions, use of energy; prokaryotic chemical reaction in cytoplasm
3. Regulation and Homeostasis maintain stable internal conditions on of blood neutral 7.1-7.2
4. Reproduction, growth, and development maturity, reproduce
5. Heredity all living organisms possess a genetic system that is based on DNA or RNA
6. Response to the environment ex plants bend, move away from wrist ; all organisms respond to env stimuli
6. Evolve changing, adapting ; ability to adapt and change
What about viruses?
Parasitic; Small, obligate, intracellular parasites
Are not cellular, particles or agents
Survive outside a host
#’s cannot increase without a host
Are viruses alive?
Partially living, have some characteristics of
living organism. Not cellular ( have great avility
to evolve (HIV, flu)
Hereditary material – DNA or RNA
Adapted to exploit host cells
Adapt and evolve
Seeks natural causes for natural phenomenon (see, observe, manipulate, measure and verify, repeat)
Stages of a Scientific Investigation SCIENTIFIC PROCESS
–1. O observation ( be able to see)
–2. H hypothesis ; Hunch or educated guess in watch
researcher; integrates all knowledge (TESTABLE)
–3. P prediction
–4. E,T testing . experiments
–5. C conclusion
Scientific Method 2.QUESTION
How Scientists Think The Logic of Hypothesis Tests:
•A hypothesis that fails our test is rejected and
considered disproven
•A hypothesis that passes is supported, but not proven
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