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Lecture 12

BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Jerry Coyne, Eichhornia Crassipes, Graphical Model

79 pages38 viewsFall 2010

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Jean Jiang Nash
Lecture
12

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Lec12 – Intro to Evolutionary Bio 07:38
Jerry coyne wrote book on speciation
Approaches
Observational collect date by seeing whats happening
Theoretical 3 types of develop models
Verbal / narrative
How you think the world works -> verbalize it
Graphical model
What does it predict (linear, curved linear)
Mathematical
Equations, models
Comparative collect from # of species see if robust
Experimental test preceding obs, theory, comparative data
Biodiversity & Adaption
Biodiversity:
James: species diversity: number of species in particular place
Idea that species: also have populations genetically variable
Genetic variation = part of biodiversity
Life = genealogical hierarchy
From gene -> pop -> species -> genre -> family
Adaptation
Noun: a trait (smt as an adaptation)
Trait = character/characteristic of org
feature -> contributes to fitness
how many genes you pass on to next generation vs another indivi in pop,
pass more gene = more fit
better able to survive/reproduce in env
Verb: process, evo process leads to origin of maintenance of traits (above)
Scientists
Bc evo = historical science
Focus on scientists + history of field
Pics of ppl and know who ppl are
Theodosius Dobzhansky
Invented fruit fly genetics
Used fruit fly as model system for understanding population genetics, mutation, etc
James D. Watson
Molecular biologist
Evolutionary mechanisms
Study at population lvl
Ecology + genetics of evolutionary change
www.notesolution.com
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Organisms have genes that are transferred to next generation
How well they do that depends on env they’re in + traits they have
Interested in: measuring natural selection
Studying adaptations, speciation, process that give rise to diversity
Test models in labs + fields
Can study evo today: bacteria in hospitals, in your stomach
Evo never stops, as long as life exists it exists
Contemporary
Herbicide resistance
Evolutionary history
Orgs traits are from common ancestors
Evo in the past
Study by determining:
evolutionary relationships among orgs phylogenetic (tree of life)
Collect comparative data
Genetics provide evidence for tree of life
Look at how many alleles we share with other orgs
Electrophoresis of protein coding genes, study 20-30 genes, grad student:
genomic approaches (20,000 genes) + bioinformatics
can look at hundreds of thousands of genes
Barret Lab1
PhD thesis on worlds worst aquatic weed (water hyacinth)
Costs billions of dollars around world to control it
Cannot get rid of it w/ herbicides bc in lakes, rice fields, dams, reservoirs
Reproduces colonially + sexually (dual reproductive strategies)
World record cloning ability
Darwin predicted there should be a certain form of plant (only got 2 forms), there is
a missing form
3 diff kinds of sexes, differ in position of sex organs
J. Bombay Nat. looked for Darwins missing form
Barret found the 3rd type Darwins missing form (found in Amazon b/c plant has
been spread around world by humans, that form was one that was not spread
around)
Founder event
Very little diversity in old world, but lot more diversity in new areas
Humans can affect spread of genetics + affect dramatically
Barret Lab2
Babiana ringens (Rats Tail)
Bird polination, what polinates it?
Flowers on the ground = red (symbols bird polination)
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Functions as a perch
Humming birds hover, sunbirds + honey-eaters perch
Sunbirds, grabs perch, upside down to pollinate
Cut out sex organs
Affect quantity + quality of seeds
Used genetic markers
Visitation only by female birds (go to ground)
Males dont go on ground b/c of long tail
Cross pollination dropped, most were self seeded = without perch
Perch = adaptation optimizing reproductive success
Evo: branches were suppressed to give perch
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