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lecture note

Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

of 3
BIO 120
Ecological Niche Modeling (16)
these plants dont grown in north america, but have been introduced
naturally, the plant grows in china and japan, so were are the
corresponding places in north America where these pants will grow? So
you look at the niche ( precipitation + other physical conditions) in its
native continent and see where these corresponding conditions will be
in north America.
This reasoning is used to explain plant distribution with respect to
climate change
Core Ideas in Physiological Ecology( 17)
organisms need to maintain homeostasis… its important that bodies
remain within the temperature range.
(22) Siberian tiger
- broad ranges that can adjust to various climates, can live in steaming
rainforests and brutal winters
- coyote is actively expanding its range, has to moved to Alaska. (more
- well in deserts, forests, and in snow [ very dynamic and successful]
25- if the surface is moist, there ill be evaporation of water, provides for
strong cooling effect [ convection]
26- size matters
-as objects get larger, they will tend to equilibrate slowly
- the bigger the body is the more interia it takes
28- elephant, largest animal, lives in africa which is hot not cold
however, mammoths, a while ago, did live in cold environments, now we
dont find elephats in cold environments becausehuman huntes them
out, but they can in fac survive there
29- some plants increase their surface area (SA)
30- minimum SA:V
31- adenpages ( limbs, ears, snouts..)
32 one is sphere-shapedm the other had longer legs + longer ears. This has
to do with their different environments
33- animals in cold have heavy insulation. Three types of insulation: fur,
feathers, and fat.
36- fat is important in a couple of ways: to produce energy + warmth, and for
insulation. Why dont seals have fur? Because that would create drag, and
they need to swim fast to catch fish for food.
37- fur and feather allow animals to change shape to adjust to environments
39- other ways to cool off : the dinsosaur fins helped these dinsaurus cool off
by pumping blood into the fins, to cool off.
40- the vessels ( arteries + veins) in animal should be apressed in
appendages so heat is conserved.
41- the dog has a large tongue, lose eat by panting, and sweat through their
paw pads. That speeds the loss of heat in a hot environment.
42- has large ears, most for thermo-radiation, large SA less volume. Can use
their trunk to spray water on themselves as a way to cool off.
the kangaroos are in shade, and are trying to do as little as possible
( low metabolism). The mother kangaroo has moistened her forearms
by licking them as a method of cooling off.
Lect 3 + 4 notes (slides)
3- Henry the fifth is wearing weasel skins, has a larger volume and low
surface area.
5 + 6- the weasels body plan is well suited fro warm climates, but the places
they actually live in are iron( or are a paradox).
7- it does not have to do with their body plan, rather their success as
8- the weasel is only able to hunt these animals if only they can burrow down
their holes, and thats why weasels are long ans skinny, so they can easily
hunts these animals in their holes.