science also perceives with theories, and generalization. biological integration species playing a role with another (depend on each other) inidividualistic hypothesis- the reason species work together b/c they have similar ranges of tolerancesame temp, habitatetc. invective, and decades later, by data (gradient analysis- ) graph d is what whitticher found on slide 9. Each pseices behaves individualistically, do not respond to each others presence but the envornment conditions that vary. another piece of evidence- post-glacial migrations of tree species. Howveer, different tree specied went along different path, they differently. vegetation is primaily individualistic: envornment affects them not the presence of other vegetation. pioneer species(stars with r-strategists) seral stagesclimax stage (end) plants attract birds, bird bring in seeds new colonists to keep succession moving along. primary succession- new species colonizes a placeeventually grow into a lot more vegetation. secondary succession: disturbance is caused (fire, logging), and then vegetation grows back.