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Belinda Chang

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Lecture 1 Intro to Cells & Nucleic Acids
Tree of Lifeshare similar things (DNA, RNA, proteins)
-Composed of 3 major kingdoms:
Composed of
oBacteria (Eubacteria)true/normal bacteria
oArchaea (archaebacteria) characteristics of eubacteria &
eucaryotes, grow in diverse places (thermal places, sewage pits, salt
marshes, high acid, low places)
oEucaryotes multicellular (vertebrates, invertebrates,
plants, humans) or single-celled (protists)
2 main types of cells:
1) Procaryotic cells
-No nuclei
-Single-celled (mostly exist as independent individuals, known to form colonies/communities)
-Bacteria & archaea
2) Eucaryotic cells
-Nuclei (nucleic acids are separated by nuclear membrane)
-Multicellular (not always)
-Plants, fungi, animals, humans
Procaryotic cells
-Very simple cell, not many specialized compartments
-Plasma membrane serves as filter to separate inside from
outside & mediate what diffuses in/out
-Nucleiod nucleic acids that are not enclosed by any sort of
-Cell wallprotects bacteria from outside
-Ribosomessites of protein synthesis & free-floating in cytosol.
Eukaryotic Cell
-Much more complex & divided into many different types
of specialized compartments.
-Larger (though not always)
-Much greater degree of complexity requires structural
elements called cytoskeleton which mediate division of cell
into specialized compartments, mediate shape cell can
have, movements of cell towards things.
-Microtubule help move different organs & proteins
up/down these structures.
-DNAcontained w/in nuclear envelope.
-Ribosomes tend to be organized into structure called
endoplasmic reticulum although some occur in cytosol.
-Energy-producing units are contained in mitochondria
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