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Lecture 13

BIO241 Lecture 13

3 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Jennifer Harris

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- cytoskeletal machinery controls cell shape, interactions and numbers
BIO241 Lecture 13 Cytoskeleton
- cytoskeletal networks provide structural frameworks for cells, very dynamic and
highly regulated, can be remodelled broken down and rebuild again so cell can
change its shape
- functions:
o cables for intracellular traffic, chromosome separation during mitosis,
cytokinesis, mechanical strength (transduce force)
o poles: forming cell protrusions (protrusive force), filopodia and
lamellipodia for cell migration (forward translation) , stereocilia in sensory
cells
- made of filaments composed of small protein subunits, gives dynamic property,
allows them to breakdown and rebuild quickly, small soluble subunits can form
large filamentous polymer and the reverse is true
- three main networks of filaments
o microfilaments: actin monomers
o microtubules: tubulin monomers
o intermediate filaments: many different types, e.g. keratin in skin
- filament nucleation is rate-limiting step in filament polymerization
o short oligomers of subunits can assemble spontaneously but unstable
o if stabilized, long polymers can be nucleated rapidly
o can stabilize nucleation events and control where/when new filaments
form via regulatory proteins, without it nucleation is slow
- further polymerization depends on the addition and removal of subunits at the
ends
o depends on presence of polymer and subunit and the strength of attraction
o must have polymer or else must nucleate first to create polymer (overcome
barrier to nucleation)
o strength consists of rate constant of addition and rate constant of removal
tendency of subunit to bind to polymer kon
x rate of monomer addition k(binding event)
on
tendency of a subunit will fall off from polymer k
C, C= concentration of
monomers
off
x rate of falling depends only on k(release event)
off
- one end of the polymer has different polymerization properties from the other
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Description
BIO241 Lecture 13 Cytoskeleton - cytoskeletal machinery controls cell shape, interactions and numbers - cytoskeletal networks provide structural frameworks for cells, very dynamic and highly regulated, can be remodelled broken down and rebuild again so cell can change its shape - functions: o cables for intracellular traffic, chromosome separation during mitosis, cytokinesis, mechanical strength (transduce force) o poles: forming cell protrusions (protrusive force), filopodia and lamellipodia for cell migration (forward translation) , stereocilia in sensory cells - made of filaments composed of small protein subunits, gives dynamic property, allows them to breakdown and rebuild quickly, small soluble subunits can form large filamentous polymer and the reverse is true - three main networks of filaments o microfilaments: actin monomers o microtubules: tubulin monomers o intermediate filaments: many different types, e.g. keratin in skin - filament nucleation is rate-limiting step in filament polymerization o short ol
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