BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Theodosius Dobzhansky, Natural Selection, Microevolution

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11 Nov 2012
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Lecture 12
Evolution happens on population level, individuals do not evolve
Evolution:
1) Organisms on earth have changed through time
2) Changes are gradual
3) Lineage split or branch by speciation resulting in the generation of biodiversity
4) Common ancestors
5) Natural selection
Products of evolution: Biodiversity & Adaptation
The variety of life on earth Any trait that contributes to fitness by making an organism
better able to survive or reproduce in a given environment
Theory of Evolution
- Central unifying concept of biology
- Affects many other areas of knowledge
- Very influential
Theodosius Dobzhansky, 1900-1975: fruit fly geneticist and founder of the modern evolutionary
synthesis; genetic studies
James D. Watson, 1965: Nobel Prize for DNA
Evolutionary biology today
- Evolutionary mechanisms; microevolution; studying evolution in action
- Evolutionary history; macroevolution; historical relationships of the organisms
Evolutionary mechanisms
- Determining the ecological and genetic mechanisms
- Involve population-level studies of natural selection, adaptation and speciation using diverse
organsms
- Testing of theories by experiments in labs and field
Evolutionary history
- Evolutionary relationships of organisms in terms f common ancestry phylogenetics
- Taxonomy & systematics
- Comparative data from many sources
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