BIO130H1 Lecture 2: Model Organisms, the Central Dogma & Nucleic Acids

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18 Jan 2019
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BIO130 Lecture 2 10/01/2019
Tree of life:
Phylogenetic tree used to look at evolutionary relationships
Constructed based on RNA gene sequences
Tree changes using different sequences
Studying diversity:
19th 20th century approach vs late 20th-21st century approach
Using model species
o Meant to represent an entire group of species
o Apply findings to closely related organisms
Model organisms and their general attributes:
Rapid development with short life cycles
Small adult reproductive size
Readily available collections or wide-spread
Tractability ease of manipulation or modification
Understandable genetics
o Organisms that are haploid or diploid are easier to understand than
organisms with 4 or 8 sets of chromosomes
The central dogma:
Information flow in the cell
DNA (transcription) RNA (translation) protein
Not all of the DNA is transcribed just like not all of the RNA is translated
How all of this diversity arises
The central dogma refined:
DNA
o mRNA
messenger RNA
protein
o tRNA
transfer RNA
transport amino acids for protein synthesis
has structural role
o rRNA
ribosomal RNA
part of the ribosome
has structural and catalytic role
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