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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Part 2


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO130H1
Professor
Jane Mitchell
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3 Jan. 16/12
Introduction to Cells and Diversity (P2)
Genetic Code
Codes for 20 amino acids (AA)
Redundancies, different codons code for same AA
Can reduce effect of random mutations, DNA can still code for same AA
Nucleic Acids
Biological molecules, encodes organism’s blueprints
DNA, RNA
Denoted acid due to negatively charged phosphate backbone
Monomer (nucleotide): phosphate group + pentose sugar + nitrogenous base
Nomenclature: nucleoside (base + sugar) + Xphosphate (X = mono, di or tri)
Bases
Purines (A, G): Double ring
Pyrimidines (T, C, U): Single ring
U replaces T in RNA due to reactive methyl group on T
DNA v. RNA
Deoxyribose sugar, ribose sugar
Ribose contains extra hydroxyl group, makes RNA more reactive
T, U replaces T
Central Dogma Expansion (functionalities, definitions)
DNA also encodes for tRNA and rRNA
tRNA: transfer RNA, transports AA in protein synthesis
rRNA: ribosomal RNA, interacts with ribosomes as protein synthesis catalyst
DNA (Genome), RNA (transcriptome), proteins (proteome), interacting proteins
(interactome), metabolic materials (metabolome), cell product (phenome)
Introduction to Nucleic Acids and Proteins (P1)
Molecular Interactions
1
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