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Lecture 1

BIO130H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Nucleoside Triphosphate, Metabolome, Vacuole


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO130H1
Professor
Melody Neumann
Lecture
1

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Introduction to Cells, Diversity and Nucleic Acids
Week 1: Readings: Karp: pp. 7-19, 26- 30, 77-79, 428- 429
Three tenets:
all organisms are comprised of one or more cells
the cell is the basic unit of life
all cells arise from preexisting cells (heredity)
1) Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells
2) Origins
3) Diversity and Model Systems
4) Information flow
5) Introduction to Nucleic Acids
Two main types of cells:
1) Prokaryotic cells
No nuclei (no distinct compartment for DNA)
primarily single-celled (some can live in a community, biofilm)
Eubacteria and archaea
2) Eukaryotic cells
Nuclei
Single celled or multicellular
tend to be much more complex than prokaryotes, larger in size and
genome
pro: 500-600 genes
22000 or more in human
Plants, fungi, animals, humans
Prokaryotic Cell
no nucleus, no membrane bound organelle
not all bacteria have flagella
Eukaryotic Cell
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membrane bound nucleus
nucleolus
cytoskeleton
framework for moving molecules from one side to another
endomembrane: ER, golgi body
Plant: same features + chloroplast; vacuole (bc.plants don't have skeleton, they need a
place for storage); cell wall (animal and protostomes don't have this )
Did eukaryotes evolve from Prokaryotes?
fossil record show that prokaryotes were present 3 billion years ago and signs of
synthesis
eukaryotes were only found a billion years later
they have similarities and both are in their own way complex
unlikely that the complex mechanisms are evolved independently
Endosymbiont Theory - Evidences
Double membrane system
the ingested prokaryotes provide ATP for the host organism
photosynthetic cyanobacterium
have a rudimentary membrane system that looks like modern
chloroplast
hypothesis: mitochondria happened sooner than plants
chloroplast and mitochondria both have double membrane system, the outer
membrane is different from the inner ones, through the engulfing of the cells,
the host membrane might have been the source of the outer membrane
mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genome, they are circular (a key feature
of prokaryotic genome )
mitochondria and chloroplast have their own ribosome : able to synthesis their own
protein, DNA synthesis machinery and transport
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