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Lecture 3

BIO130H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Topoisomerase, Ribosomal Rna, Retrotransposon

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Melody Neumann

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Week 2 Continued - Genomes and Chromosomes
Lecture Outline:
1. Genomes
2. Bacterial DNA Packaging
3. Introduction to Eukaryotic DNA Packaging
Readings: 411-414; 400-406 (skip human perspectives)
Poplar genome
First tree genome
Sequenced Genomes
Neanderthal Genome Sequence
􀂾approximately 65% Neanderthal genomes obtained from ancient DNA samples
from fossils
problems encountered: contaminations through the time and in the lab
approximately 1~4% of DNA from anatomically modern europeans and asians may
have originated from Neanderthals
Much of this Neanderthals derived DNA relates to immune functions
Human genome
3 billion base pairs per genome
One maternal + one paternal genome = you
~25,000 genes spread across 23 chromosomes
XX female, XY male
But genomes can come in all sizes.........
eg. virus that infect bacteria: bacteriophage
10-50 kBases (1 kB = 1000 base pairs)
e.g. bacterium with the circular chromosomes
4600 kB
e.g. Plasmids: small, circular pieces of DNA that can replicate at different time
replicate autonomously
often the sources of antibiotics
1~1000 kB
human: 3 million kB
.......and contrast these sizes with organellar genomes
mitochondrial genome is small because the genes that used to occupy it are now in
the nucleus (same with chloroplasts)
cross signalling
mitochondria seng signal to nucleus, things then get made
Comparing genome sizes
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