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Lecture 16

CLA230 Lecture 16 Notes

Course Code
Michael J.Dewar

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CLA230 Lecture 16 Notes
Fighting in the Straits
- Persian satraps pay for 100 Spartan ships
- turning point in the war – not the failure of the Sicilian expedition – but when
Persia starts giving Sparta money
- therefore the Spartans launch a navy
- satraps do not collect taxes from Ionia – Ionia pays tribute to Athens
- attempt to recoup financial losses – if Athens loses, then Persia can regain
Ionian territory
- not just Spartan ships – also Corinth, etc. from the Peloponnese
- despite the assistance – Athens still wins battles in the north Aegean
- Athenian victories
Cynossema – 411 B.C.
Abydos – winter 411/0 B.C.
Cyzicus – 410 B.C.
- northern Aegean is important for Athens – import grain
- not self-sufficient agriculturally – Athens imports from Greek colonies on the
Black Sea
- around 410 B.C., Spartans sue for peace – Athens refuses
Alcibiades, the 400
- around 411 B.C.
- Alcibiades – in exile since the Sicilian expedition
- approaches the Athenian fleet at Samos – offers Persian money in exchange
for his recall – wants to overthrow the democracy
- can guarantee Persian money – likely bluffing
- what matters to Alcibiades is Athenian importance within the city
- “traditional constitution” gains momentum – anti-democratic coup
- coup continues despite the lack of Persian assistance and breakdown of
negotiations between Athens and Alcibiades
- Council of 400 to draft list of the 5000
- democracy is expensive – pay for office, pay for jury duty, etc. – oligarchy is
- military expenses only – reduction of pay for office
-graphe paranomon – ability for a citizen to sue another on the grounds of
proposing an illegal motion
- suspension of graphe paranomon
- killing of political enemies and seizing their assets
- intimidation
Alcibiades the Democrat
- Athenian fleet in Samos stays democratic
- Alcibiades becomes pro-democracy – suddenly switches sides
- fleet elects its own generals – one of whom is Alcibiades
- the Council of 400 is deposed in Athens
- city and army have two forms of government – idea of “two cities of Athens”
- quote by Thucydides: “for the first time (at least during my life) the Athenians
were well governed: for there was a reasonable mixture with regard to the
few and the many, and it was this which first lifted the city out of the
wretched state it had fallen into”

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- moderate democracy or fairly broad-based oligarchy
- best government to Thucydides – conservative
Literary Sources
- Thucydides
text breaks off in autumn of 411 B.C.
- Xenophon
student of Sophocles – wrote about him
Hellenica – contemporary – 411-362 B.C.
picks up where Thucydides left off
sort of appendix to Thucydides
- Diodorus Siculus
Bibliotheke – written in the 1st century B.C.
political history
- Plutarch
lives – of Alcibiades and Lysander
Persian and Lysander
- spring of 407 B.C.
- become closer in the waning years of the war
- Sparta sends embassy to Darius II
- king sends his son Cyrus – who is only sixteen years old
- Cyrus sent to Anatolia – with special command
- negotiation of subsidies – can offer higher daily wage for rowers than the
Athenians can
- Cyrus and Lysander negotiate
- Lysander is navarch
- Lysander defeats the Athenian fleet at Notion – 406 B.C.
- Alcibiades is deprived of command therefore Athens is defeated – Alcibiades
goes to Thrace
- following summer, 405 B.C. – Lysander defeats Athenian fleet at Aegospotami
- Alcibiades goes to Athenian admirals to tell them that they have the fleets in
a bad position
- Lysander intercepts grain fleet – harvested in June/July
- brings an end to the war
- Lysander establishes decarchies – panels of ten men to run cities
- Athens is forced to surrender because they are blockaded on land and sea
- Persian money allows Sparta to rebuild their fleets
Terms of Surrender
- dismantle fortifications
- quote by Xenophon: “They proceeded to tear down the walls to the
accompaniment of pipe‐girls with great enthusiasm, thinking that day was
the beginning of freedom for Greece.”
- exiles recalled
- stripped of empire – no claims of overseas possessions
- fleet surrendered – kept only twelve ships for defense
- same friends and enemies as Sparta
- Sparta wants to call the shots in Greece
- Corinth and Thebes want Athens destroyed but Sparta refuses
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