CLA230 Lecture 17 Notes
The Rise of Macedon
- late 4th century B.C. – rise of Macedon
- Alexander I – Macedonian king surrenders to Persian kings during the Persian
- Macedon – peripheral to Greek world in some ways
- Athenians have some interest in this area
- Thrace is east of Macedonia
- before the 4th century B.C. – Macedonia is mentioned through Athenian
- in the 5th century B.C., Athens interferes in Macedonian politics because it is
not in the best interest of Athens for there to be a strong king in Macedonia
- Athens often supported “pretenders” to the throne because it helped to keep
- fairly weak kings until Philip takes over
- succession claims were often weak because they were not always clear –
“pretenders” often became kings
- Macedonia not quite a Greek kingdom – “Greekness” of Macedonians is
- during the Persian Wars – panHellenic games – someone claims Alexander
cannot compete because he is not Greek – Alexander proves that he is
descended from Herakles
- Alexander is able to compete and wins a chariot
- potential for dispute regarding their Greekness, however
- Alexander the Great – tutor is Aristotle
-Bacchae is first performed in Macedonia – while Euripides is the royal poet
- anti-Macedonians often claimed that Macedonians were not true Greeks, but
- non-ethnically Macedonians living on the borders – much fighting of
- traditional capital is Aigeai – moves to Pella at a later date
- takes the throne in 359 B.C.
- lots of problems – different groups opposed to him
- Athens – because they have interest up north – want to control the coastline
- also internal politics/problems
- ways Philip manages problems – manipulation of royal marriages to create
- marriages to women outside the Macedonian kingdom
- Molossian royal family claims descent from Achilles through Neoptolamus
•Audata the Illyrian
•Phila the Elimiotian
•two Thessalian women
•Olympias the Molossian
•Meda the Thracian
- Olympias – mother of Alexander the Great
- networks through marriage – is done repeatedly throughout the course of
- Alexander is not the only claimant to the throne – many other children
Philip and Athens
- Philip is able to manipulate Athens
- takes different cities – Athens is engaged in warfare with allies at the time –
- Athens – Social War – 357-355 B.C.
- Philip as militarily minded – uses an opportunity to control the coastlines
around the Macedonian kingdoms
•Amphipolis – 357 B.C.
•Pydna – 357 B.C.
•Potidaea – 356 B.C.
•Methone – 354 B.C.
- Philip also distributes land conquered to supporters – not just rue but also
creating a network of supporters
- Greek supporters – drawn to Philip because he can reward them
Athenian Social War
- takes place 357-355 B.C.
- Second “Delian” Sea League - set up by Athens in 378 B.C.
- allies are free and autonomous, no garrisons, officers, or tribute
- prevent Athens from taking too much control
- purely voluntary league of naval power – Sparta still a predominant power
during this time
- Sparta still has power and authority – fairly ruthless therefore create league
- withdrawal from league in 378 B.C. – Byzantium, Chios Rhodes, and Cos
- withdraw and begin raiding territories – begin a war
- second sea league is destroyed – Athens loses many allies
- Athenian fleet is defeated in 357 B.C.
- Persian king intervenes and forces peace in 355 B.C.
- Philip improves upon the military organization in Macedon
- sarisa/sarissa – longer spear used
- sarisa as 4-6 m long, very heavy, and requiring skill to use
- requires training to use the lance – increasing professionalization of military
- shield is smaller and hangs around the neck/shoulder – must use two hands
for the spear
- more flexible than the traditional phalanx – more lightly armed in a way
- multiple ranks of spears protruding from the front rank
- more difficult to defeat – becomes the way of fighting in the Hellenistic Period
until the Roman Period
- Macedonian cavalry also uses the long lance – not just an infantry tactic
The rise of macedon late 4th century b. c. Alexander i macedonian king surrenders to persian kings during the persian. Macedon peripheral to greek world in some ways. Athenians have some interest in this area. Thrace is east of macedonia before the 4th century b. c. Macedonia is mentioned through athenian interests in the 5th century b. c. , athens interferes in macedonian politics because it is not in the best interest of athens for there to be a strong king in macedonia. Athens often supported pretenders to the throne because it helped to keep succession weak fairly weak kings until philip takes over succession claims were often weak because they were not always clear . Alexander is able to compete and wins a chariot. Alexander the great tutor is aristotle. Illyrians: paeonians, thracians, athenians also internal politics/problems alliances. Athens because they have interest up north want to control the coastline. Ways philip manages problems manipulation of royal marriages to create.