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Lecture 17

CLA230 Lecture 17 Notes


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO220H1
Professor
Michael J.Dewar
Lecture
17

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CLA230 Lecture 17 Notes
The Rise of Macedon
- late 4th century B.C. – rise of Macedon
- Alexander I – Macedonian king surrenders to Persian kings during the Persian
Wars
- Macedon – peripheral to Greek world in some ways
- Athenians have some interest in this area
- Thrace is east of Macedonia
- before the 4th century B.C. – Macedonia is mentioned through Athenian
interests
- in the 5th century B.C., Athens interferes in Macedonian politics because it is
not in the best interest of Athens for there to be a strong king in Macedonia
- Athens often supported “pretenders” to the throne because it helped to keep
succession weak
- fairly weak kings until Philip takes over
- succession claims were often weak because they were not always clear –
“pretenders” often became kings
- Macedonia not quite a Greek kingdom – “Greekness” of Macedonians is
sometimes disputed
- during the Persian Wars – panHellenic games – someone claims Alexander
cannot compete because he is not Greek – Alexander proves that he is
descended from Herakles
- Alexander is able to compete and wins a chariot
- potential for dispute regarding their Greekness, however
- Alexander the Great – tutor is Aristotle
-Bacchae is first performed in Macedonia – while Euripides is the royal poet
- anti-Macedonians often claimed that Macedonians were not true Greeks, but
barbarians
- non-ethnically Macedonians living on the borders – much fighting of
mountainous groups
- traditional capital is Aigeai – moves to Pella at a later date
Philip II
- takes the throne in 359 B.C.
- lots of problems – different groups opposed to him
- problems:
Illyrians
Paeonians
Thracians
Athenians
- Athens – because they have interest up north – want to control the coastline
- also internal politics/problems
- ways Philip manages problems – manipulation of royal marriages to create
alliances
- marriages to women outside the Macedonian kingdom
- Molossian royal family claims descent from Achilles through Neoptolamus
- marriages:
Audata the Illyrian
Phila the Elimiotian
two Thessalian women

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Olympias the Molossian
Meda the Thracian
- Olympias – mother of Alexander the Great
- networks through marriage – is done repeatedly throughout the course of
Philip’s rule
- Alexander is not the only claimant to the throne – many other children
Philip and Athens
- Philip is able to manipulate Athens
- takes different cities – Athens is engaged in warfare with allies at the time –
“Social War”
- Athens – Social War – 357-355 B.C.
- Philip as militarily minded – uses an opportunity to control the coastlines
around the Macedonian kingdoms
- Successes:
Amphipolis – 357 B.C.
Pydna – 357 B.C.
Potidaea – 356 B.C.
Methone – 354 B.C.
- Philip also distributes land conquered to supporters – not just rue but also
creating a network of supporters
- Greek supporters – drawn to Philip because he can reward them
Athenian Social War
- takes place 357-355 B.C.
- Second “Delian” Sea League - set up by Athens in 378 B.C.
- allies are free and autonomous, no garrisons, officers, or tribute
- prevent Athens from taking too much control
- purely voluntary league of naval power – Sparta still a predominant power
during this time
- Sparta still has power and authority – fairly ruthless therefore create league
- withdrawal from league in 378 B.C. – Byzantium, Chios Rhodes, and Cos
- withdraw and begin raiding territories – begin a war
- second sea league is destroyed – Athens loses many allies
- Athenian fleet is defeated in 357 B.C.
- Persian king intervenes and forces peace in 355 B.C.
Macedonian Phalanx
- Philip improves upon the military organization in Macedon
- sarisa/sarissa – longer spear used
- sarisa as 4-6 m long, very heavy, and requiring skill to use
- requires training to use the lance – increasing professionalization of military
- shield is smaller and hangs around the neck/shoulder – must use two hands
for the spear
- more flexible than the traditional phalanx – more lightly armed in a way
- multiple ranks of spears protruding from the front rank
- more difficult to defeat – becomes the way of fighting in the Hellenistic Period
until the Roman Period
- Macedonian cavalry also uses the long lance – not just an infantry tactic
Sacred Wars
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