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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 Cooperation, Conflict, and levels of selection

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Doug Thomson

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Lecture 5 BBIO220 Cooperation, Conflict, and Levels of Selection
Parent-offpring (PO)
Parent-parent (PP)
PO and PP combined
Conflict occurs when parent and offspring weigh costs and benefits differently.
The trade off
(+) B(p) = fitness of current offspring
(-) C(p) = number of offspring “given up”
maximize benefit-cost
Siblings genetically related; R = ½
A gene that causes an offspring to take more resources now will reduce its replication
through future offspring.
Offspring should maximize B(p) – ½ C(p)
Parents should maximize ½ B(p) – ½ C(p)
Optimal Provisioning rate is greater in offspring than parent
Costs and Benefits of Deserting
Benefits: increase quantity of offspring (remate)
Costs: decrease quality of offspring, decrease probability of survival
Male care predominates in Kentish Plover
Experiment 1: Benefit of deserting
Release 1 parent and measure the time to re-mate
Decreased re-mating time = Increased benefit for deserting
Increased remating time = decreased benefit for deserting (long time to re-mate,
low benefit)
Result: Increased re-mating time for males, Increased female benefit for deserting,
decreased benefit for male for deserting.
Experiment 2: Cost of deserting (uniparental care)
Manipulated number of parents: F/M/F&M
Measured offspring survival
Decreased survival = high cost of deserting
Increased survival = low cost of deserting
Result: Male desertslow survival, female desertssimilar to control
Low costs for female deserting
High costs for male deserting
Female and male transmit imprints to offspring.
Insulin like growth factor (Igf-2)

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Lecture 5 BBIO220 Cooperation Conflict and Levels of SelectionConflictsParentoffpring POParentparent PPPO and PP combinedConflict occurs when parent and offspring weigh costs and benefits differentlyThe trade offBpfitness of current offspring Cpnumber of offspring given upmaximize benefitcostSiblings genetically related RA gene that causes an offspring to take more resources now will reduce its replication through future offspringOffspring should maximize Bp CpParents should maximizeBp CpOptimal Provisioning rate is greater in offspring than parentCosts and Benefits of DesertingBenefits increase quantity of offspring remateCosts decrease quality of offspring decrease probability of survivalMale care predominates in Ke
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