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BIO230H1 Lecture Notes - Nucleoid, Transcriptome

Course Code
Jennifer Harris

of 6
Chapter 1, Pg. 1-8, 14-16; Chapter 4, Pg. 411-416, 432-438
Eubacteria and archaea
Small simple cells
A real annoyance in hospitals
Live independently or in loosely organized communities (not multi-cellular)
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Eukaryotic cells
Plants, fungi, animals, humans
Can be singled-celled or multicellular
Presence of nuclei and organelles
Much larger
Eubacteria only
Live in extreme environments
Not all have flagella
Animal cell
Lecture 1
Tuesday, September 13, 2011
8:55 PM
BIO230 Page 1
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Also chloroplasts
Plants have cell walls
Encodes information to construct and maintain organism
All known life forms possess genome
Viruses sometimes have RNA
Mostly DNA
Release of biological information in genome requires genome expression
Genome expression
The Transcriptome
DNA microarray:
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When RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into mRNA
Collection of proteins in a cell
Defines the biochemical functions of cell
Animal cell
Red is more expression (more RNA)
Green is less expression (less RNA)
Each cell expresses different parts of genome
BIO230 Page 2
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When mRNA is translated by ribosomes
Proteome maintained by translation
The "Central Dogma"
Genome (DNA) --> Transcriptome (RNA) --> Proteome (Protein)
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Due to differences in genome expression
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Different cell types of a multicellular organism contains the same DNA
Ie. Hemoglobin only found in red blood cells (very high amount)
Only 30-60% of genes expressed
In human genome of ~25000 genes
Red is common proteins
Blue is specific to tissue
Note more blue spots
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