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Lecture 1

BIO251H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Capsicum, Apoplast, Acorus Calamus

Course Code
Tammy Sage

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BIO251'Laboratory'1' ' ' 2015'
The plant body of vascular land plants is a highly integrated structural and functional unit. The
vegetative portion of the plant body can be divided into three organs - the root, stem, and leaf. Each
organ is comprised of three primary tissue systems which, in turn, consist of specific tissues and their
constitutive cell types. The three tissue systems and their tissues are the dermal (epidermis tissue),
vascular (xylem and phloem tissue), and ground (parenchyma, collencyhma, and sclerenchyma tissue)
systems. The cell types making up each tissue are quite varied in anatomy and physiology, although
some attributes are common to all living plant cell types. The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce
you first to basic structure of the living plant cell and the functional ultrastructural units therein. Then,
you will examine the epidermal and ground tissues and their component cell types.
Read Chapters 3, and 23 of “The Biology of Plants” by Raven, Evert, and Eichhorn
Provide definitions for the following terms:
symplast apoplast
vacuole cell sap
cell wall plasmodesmata
cytoplasm nucleoplasm
nucleus nuclear membrane
nucleolus ribosomes
plasma membrane endomembrane system
endoplasmic reticulum Golgi body
cisternae stroma
thylakoid organelle
grana chloroplast
amyloplast microbody
mitochondria cell sap
protein body tonoplast
collenchyma parenchyma
stomata trichome
epidermis ground tissue
sclerenchyma sclereid

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BIO251'Laboratory'1' ' ' 2015'
Examination of the structure of the cell can be completed with various types of microscopes. Although
the cell wall and many cellular components within the protoplast can be studied quite readily with a
simple laboratory compound light microscope, the ability the resolve numerous structures is limited.
The transmission electron microscope has an extraordinary resolving power that has allowed scientists
to view the structure of and relationships between components of the plant symplast and apoplast that
are essential for the cell and ultimately plant function. In this exercise, you will begin your study of the
plants cell by examining various transmission electron micrographs in parts A-C, and then you will
examine living tissues and some cellular components with a compound light microscope in parts D-F.
The main focus of this portion of the laboratory is to familiarize you with the structure and workings of
the cell for your future studies on plant growth and development.
A. With the aid of your textbook and/or illustrative materials provided in the laboratory,
examine the figures 1 A-D on page 3 and identify the cellular components listed and at
least one function of each component.
Cellular component Cellular function
A ____________________________ A ______________________________
B ____________________________ B ______________________________
C ____________________________ C ______________________________
D ____________________________ D ______________________________
E ____________________________ E ______________________________
F ____________________________ F______________________________
G ____________________________ G ______________________________
H ____________________________ H ______________________________

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BIO251'Laboratory'1' ' ' 2015'
Figure 1. A, Bundle sheath cell from leaf of Heliotropium convovulaceum. B, Bundle sheath cell from
leaf of Chamaesyce acuta. C, Stigmatic cell of Sarcandra glabra. D, Stigmatic cell of Acorus calamus.
Bars, 500 nm
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