BIO260H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Rifampicin, Peptidoglycan, Microbiological Culture

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22 Apr 2018
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Lecture 1 Bacterial Genetics: Understanding & Working with Bacterial Genes
Concepts in Genetics
- Each line = species
- B and C are closely related
o However, far away from A
- If lie just stops, it’s etitio
- Point where lines meet = common ancestor
- Indicates relatedness, speciation, and extinction
Bacterial Genetics
- Eehee e ae, thee’s ateia
o In water, air, soil
- Importance of bacteria
- Power of bacterial genetics
- Nature of bacterial genomes
- Mechanisms of bacterial genetic exchange
Life
- Bacteria is 1 or these 3 domains
- Highly diverse group of organisms
- Plot of relatedness
o Length of branch = how much species
has diverged from neighbor
- We’e eukaotes
o Have organelles envlosed in membranes
o We’e oe losel elated to
plant/fungus than bacteria
- Pokaotes ateia ad ahaea do’t hae
membrane enclosed structures
o No mitochondria, chloroplasts, and DNA
not in nucleus
- Withi ateia, thee’s high diesit
- All intertwined in ecosystems
o Other elements in ecosystems -> viruses
Beyond the 3 Domains of Life
- Vius is eod  doais of life eause the a’t epliate ithout host ell
- Each virus = tiny
- Marine viruses:
o 3 x 106 viruses/ml in deep sea
o 108/ml in coastal waters
o Ocean volume = 1.3 x 1021 L
Therefore, ocean waters contain > 4 x 1030 viruses
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o Each virus = 0.2gh of carbon
Very small amount, but abundant
Therefore, 200 Mt of carbon in marine viruses
o Carbon equivalent to 75 M blue whales
> 5000x number of actual blue whales
Why Study Bacteria?
- Ubiquitous
- Everywhere
- Regulate processes like sulfur and nitrogen cycle -> how they enter ecosystem
o Provide regularly accessible sulfur and nitrogen
- Sulfur cycle- needed to make proteins/amino acids
- Nitrogen cycle- ammonification -> fixes nitrogen in soil and make it available to plants
o Introduce nitrogen into air
- Vast economic, industrial, medical, and agricultural importance
o Many drugs (e.g. insulin) use recombination technology from bacteria
o Plants make ethanol for biofuel
o Bacteria produce ice nucleation crystals that allow snow making to work
o Rhizobia bacteria -> in plant roots to fix nitrogen in soil
E.g. grow maize, squash, and beans together
Beans contain nodules to fix nitrogen in soil and help plants grow
- Hardy species
o Live at high altitude, high temperature
and extreme depths of ocean floors
o > 60% Eath’s ioass
Do’t assa just ateia -> all
cells
No matter how deep you dig,
bacterial exist around same
concentration
Bateia do’t ofte lie as
single species
Live in community
known as microbiome
Huge source of carbon
Microbiome
- Assemblage of microbes that reside in specific niche
- Microbial community of a particular habitat or environment
Human Microbiome
- Assemblage of microbes that reside in or on human body
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