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Lecture 1

BIO270H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Galen, Hemoglobin, Molecular Genetics


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO270H1
Professor
Chris Garside
Lecture
1

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Lecture 1 (September 16, 2015): Introduction to Physiological Principles
Readings: pg 1-19
INTRODUCTION
physiology: "the study of how animals work"
oby studying the structure AND function
2 million found unique species on Earth
there is unity within all physiological processes (integration of concepts)
focus on causes and consequences
phenotype: observable and measurable characteristics
oex: hair colour, height, behaviour
oresults from genotype (genetic makeup) and environmental influence
they work through a developmental process to get a phenotype
passed down through reproduction (natural selection and random
processes determine passed down traits)
evolution leads to changes in phenotype
A SHORT HISTORY
Hippocrates
ofather of medicine
othought of careful observation and documentation, so that knowledge could be
passed down (left a record of work)
Aristotle
ofather of natural history
olooked at the relationship between structure and function (with the understanding
that the two work together)
Claudius Galenus (Galen)

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ofirst experimental physiologist
carefully, systematically designed experiments
ofounder of physiology
odescribed basis of many physiological processes and anatomy which guided
future scientists
Bacon and Descartes
owere not scientists, but founded a new "scientific thought"
othought of the hypothetical-deductive model (like the scientific method)
ohypotheses CANNOT be true, only supported/falsified
oExperimental Design:
reliable
repeatable
have control (positive, negative)
good sample size
randomization (ex: select sample randomly)
blind experiments (in order to not influence the results)
statistical testing (significance of results)
Schleiden and Schwann
o"cell theory"
cell is the smallest living unit structure
makes up all living things
made from pre-existing cells
Bernard
oHemoglobin has oxygen, liver has glycogen, ductless glands make hormones
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