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Lecture 7

BIO270H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Immunoglobulin Light Chain, Cell Migration, Trophoblast

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Chris Garside

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Lecture 7 (November 4, 2015): Movement and Muscle Physiology Part 1
Continuation of Reproduction:
early to mid follicular phase
oat the end of the luteal phase, there is an increase of FSH which leads to the
recruitment of follicles to begin folliculogenesis
ofollicle cells produce low to medium amounts of estrogen which inhibits GnRH
from the hypothalamus and LH and FSH from the pituitary
oonly want to recruit a single mature follicle
oonly one follicle with the greatest concentration of FSH receptors will mature
because it can respond to low concentrations of FSH
follicular phase ends with ovulation
granulosa cells make inhibin
oit inhibits cells in the anterior pituitary that produce FSH
odoes not inhibit cells that make LH
late follicular phase
olow to medium estrogens turn to high concentration of estrogen because of a
positive feedback loop
oestrogen leads to proliferation of granulosa cells to get more estrogen
ohigh estrogen then feeds back on the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of
GnRH which stimulates the release of FSH and LH, but because of inhibin, there
won't be as much FSH coming out
othere is an increase of GnRH receptors only of LH producing and releasing cells
in the anterior pituitary
othen there is a surge of LH at the end of the follicular phase
othe surge stimulates ovulation and the completion of meiosis 1 (which includes
the release of the first polar body)
oestrogens are still produced even with lower concentrations of FSH because of
granulosa cells
oestrogen functions as a positive and negative regulator
may be due to the reorganization of the signal transduction pathway of
there may be a second receptor that uses a different pathway
remnants of mature follicles after ovulation make the corpus luteum
oLH stimulates the production of the corpus luteum
oLH luteinizes thecal and granulosa cells
othere are high levels of estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin
estrogen and progesterone inhibit GnRH and FSH and LH
oreducing FSH and LH reduces folliculogensis
at this stage, the body is preparing for implantation and pregnancy, so it
doesn't want follicles
oLH maintains the corpus luteum, but gradually leads to corpus luteum atrophy in
the late luteal phase

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stops producing estrogen, progesterone, and inhibin, which removes
inhibition on FSH and LH, so folliculogensis can begin again
uterine cycle
oprepares for implantation
oduring follicular phase, the parallel cycle is the proliferative phase at the uterus
othere is an increase of GnRH and estrogen and more growth of the endometrium
and myometrium, which leads to more progesterone
secretory phase
oprepares for implantation
oincrease of estrogen and progesterone
omucus is produces
obody temperature increases
oif there is no implantation, menses occurs and menstrual cycle continues
menses is a part of the follicular phase
if there is no implantation, the follicular phase starts again
if there is implantation
odevelopment of the placenta
interface between mother and fetus
outermost layer is the trophoblast which invades the endometrium and
produces chorionic gonadotropin (CG) which leads to continued
production of progesterone and estrogen
CG rescues the corpus luteum and it binds to the same LH receptors
later in pregnancy
ocorpus luteum degenerates
oplacenta produces progesterone and estrogen and becomes the major endocrine
organ of pregnancy
placenta is not regulated by any external signals
produces hormones all on its own
parturition (birth)
othere is an increase of estrogen which leads to an increase of contractile strength
of smooth muscles
oprogesterone does not allow the contraction to occur
obirth is induced by the contraction of the myometrium
othen there is a decrease of progesterone, removing the inhibition of its disruption
to contraction
oprostoglandins (eicosanoids) and oxytocin (comes from mother due to stress
from the posterior pituitary and the fetus) induce uterine contractions and are a
result of an increase in estrogen
oestrogen stimulates the production of oxytocin receptors
ooxytocin stimulates smooth muscles to secrete prostoglandins
oplacenta is expelled soon after birth
milk production

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oprolactin induces mammary glands to produce milk and it makes sure that
biomachinery are in place for milk
oand increase of progesterone and estrogen suppress milk production during
oa decrease of estrogen and progesterone during birth and the expulsion of the
placenta allows lactation to begin
milk composition
owater, salts, and nutrients for the infant
oearliest secretion from mammary glands
rich in immunoprotective agents, growth factors, minerals, and
oas colostrum depletes, milk has more carbohydrates (lactose) and proteins (casein)
source of calcium
highly phosphorylated
oprotein is for energy and biosynthetic precursors
all physiological processes depend on movement
ointracellular transport, cell shape, motility
multicellular animals can move from place to place
othis is unique to animals
othe same cytoskeleton elements are common to all organisms
which cytoskeletal elements are involved in movement?
Cytoskeleton and Motor Proteins
all movement is due to the same cellular machinery
oprotein based intracellular network
oeverywhere in the cell
ovesicles move along cytoskeleton tracts
so that motor proteins know where to go
motor proteins
oenzymes that convert energy released from ATP into mechanical energy
okinesin and dynein move along microtubules
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