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BCH210 L13&14.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Charles Deber

Lecture 13 Lipids and Membranes  Hydrocarbon tail- only the carbon tails  Fatty acyl group- the hydrocarbon tail with the C=O  Fatty acid- hydrocarbon tail with the C=O an d the O- Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids  Saturated= have no double bonds  Unsaturated= have at least one double bond  Poly unsaturated= have many double bonds  Saturated fatty acids are straight and allows for a lot of surface area contact. This allows for a lot of vander waals interactions. More energy needed to separate them  Unsaturated has a kink or bend from the double bond. This disrupts packing and there is less surface area contact. Less energy to separate these fatty acids.  Counting of the double bonds in a fatty acid starts from the omega carbon (the last carbon) omega 3 and 6 are needed from our diet  The longer the fatty acid chain the higher the melting point (about 7 degrees for every 2 carbons added) a double bond will dramatically decrease the melting point Components of phospholipids  Two fatty acids (can be two different ones) attached to a glycerol which is attached to a phosphate which is attached to an alcohol  The fatty acids attach to the 1 and 2 carbon on the glycerol and the phosphate attaches to the third carbon  Phospholipids can be neutrao (zwitterionic) or anionic (negative charged)  The phosphate is always negative this is why its hard to overcome the negative charge to get an overall positive phospholipid would need two positives in the head group  Head groups have different structures Types of phospholipids Neutral phospholipids  Phosphatidylcholine (PC) -OCH2CH2N 3(CH3)  Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) -OCH2CH2NH3 Anionic phospholipids  Phosphatidylserine (PS)  Phosphatidylglycerol (PG)  Diphosphatidyl glycerol- (cardiolipin) in mitochondria- which is frequently found in the heart  Phosphatidylinositol (myo inositol)- rare- it is important for cellular reception- it sends signals across the membrane Spingosine  Sphingosine has a 18 carbon chain attached to a glycerol with a NH3 on the second carbon on the glycerol  Cermide- it is a sphingosine with a fatty acid N-linked  Spingomyline is a ceramide with a choline head group Cholesterol  Has 4 ring structures  It is hydrophobic, planar and rigid  Has an OH on carbon 3 and has 27 carbons in total  90% made in body and 10% comes from body  Disrupts packing of acyl chains, slows motion of acyl chains and makes the membrane less penetrable  Important precursors for steroid hormones and bile salts  Lipid membranes can be 25% cholesterol Eicosanoids  Aracahidonic acid (C20:4) usually get from diet  aracadonic acid is a fatty acid that turns into eicosanoids via COX 
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