BCH210H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 39: Acetyl-Coa, Ketone Bodies, Acetoacetic Acid

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BCH210 Lecture 33 ketogenesis and Diabetes
- Ketogenesis is the production of ketone bodies from acetyl CoA
Amino acids and carbon metabolism
- Glucogenic amino acids
o Amino acids whose carbons are used to generate glucose
o Arg, Ala, Glu, Asp
- Ketogenic amino acids
o Ile, leu, thr, trp
o Used to make acetyl CoA which is then converted into ketone bodies
Fates of acetyl CoA
- Normally, acetyl CoA is converted into citrate with the help of oxaloacetate which is
used for fat synthesis in the cytoplasm as well as in citric acid cycle to produce energy
and carbon dioxide
- If there is little oxaloacetate (meaning that there is little carbs) the acetyl CoA is
converted into ketone bodies
- Ketone bodies are then used to produce ATP
- Ketone bodies are produced in the liver
- There are 3 types of ketone bodies made from acetyl CoA via oxidation reactions
o Beta-hydroxybutyrate
Does not actually have a ketone group but a carboxyl group instead
o Acetoacetate
Which can be converted into acetone via decarboxylation reaction
o Acetone
Exhaled as waste product
- Beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate are used as energy sources, but synthesis
contributes to acidosis because they produce protons
Ketone body synthesis
- Formed in the liver mitochondria using acetyl CoA from beta-oxidation and amino acid
degradation
- Ketone bodies leave the liver and enter the blood
- Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate can be used as fuel by the brain, heart, muscle
and kidney cells
- The production of acidic ketone bodies contributes to a drop in blood pH known as
acidosis
o Bicarbonate is used as a buffer to maintain a stable blood pH
- Acetone is a waste product and gives a characteristic fruity breath symptom
- Conversion back to acetyl CoA can provide access to large amounts of ATP
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