BCH210 2014 Lecture 2.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Stavroula Andreopoulos

Lecture 2 Ionization pH Titration Curves AcidBase Chemistry Amino Acids Water is a NucleophileA nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction All molecules or ions with a free pair of electrons or at least one pi bond can act as nucleophilesStart with 2 amino acidsremove a water moleculeformation of CNNH bond amide linkageWater can Ionizeto form a hydronium molecule Properties of Waterelectrical polarity net dipolehighly cohesive attracts H2O moleculessolvates polar molecules ex Ammonia and weakens ionic ones electro static molecules ex Saltionizable nucleophileWhat is pHSoren Sorensen of Denmark devised the pH scalepH is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentrationif H1 x 107M then pH7pKwion product of waterQuantify the Ionization of Waterk ration ofproducts vs reactants in a reaction eq HOHOH 216 k HOHHO18 x 10 at 25C eq2o 1 mole18g o mass of 1L of HO1000g 2 what is molesL o 1mol18g x 1000g1L555molL MkHOH555M eqo18 x 1016 555MHOH o10 x 1014M2HOHconcentration of Hconcentration of OH 2 essentially its H 14 22o 10 x 10MH 7o 10 x 10 MHOHDissociation of Weak Electrolytesconsider a weak acid HAthe acid dissociation constant is given byDerive the HendersonHasselbalch EquationHAHAkHAHA eq logKlog HAHA ao remember logXYlogXlog YlogklogHlogAHA a logHlogklog AHAa pHpKalogAHA HASSELBALCH EQUATIONpH pKalogAHAlog of saltacidequation tells us at any pH and pKa value you can determine the concentration of salt and acid at any solution
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