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BCH210H1 (352)

lec25 Carbohydrates

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Baker

BCH210H1LECTURE 25CarbohydratesMonosaccharidesHemiacetals Hemietals and CyclizationSugar phosphates amino sugars and sugar acidsDisaccharides and glycosidic linkagesPolysaccharidesCarbohydratesRoles for carbohydrates1Energy source Primary fuels simple sugarsBrain virtually uses glucose 2Storage form of chemical energy High molecular weight sugar polymersPut them in polymers so it is a more efficient storage for sugarEg glycogenpolyglucose held in cell 3Source of C in synthesis of other molecules SugarfatLiver taking sugar and converting to fatLiver doesnt want to lose the sugar want to store it if you need it4Structural elements in cells and tissues Eg cellulose in plants5Components of nucleotides nucleic acids glycoproteins and glycolipids Eg deoxyribose riboseCarbohydrates Monosaccharides Simple sugars consist of one polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketoneGeneral formula monosaccharides CHO n 2n 37Considered hydrates of C oFor each carbon you get a water usually HO ratio21Eg glucose CHOmost abundant 6126monosaccharidesoGlucose is the most important fuel for many organismsMonosaccharides Each C except one has OH groupoThe exceptional C is either an aldehyde CHO or a ketone COTriosis3 carbonsoGlyceraldehydesAldehyde at C1oDihydroxyacetoneKetone at C2Simple sugars usually aldehydes or ketones and are 37 carbons in size1BCH210H1LECTURE 25As a straight chain compoundsoAldehyde at C1oAldose CHO is terminal group for straight chain representation of simple sugarsoKetoseInside moleculeKetone at C2Carbohydrates often have the ose suffixoGlucose sucrose fructose amyloseetc Most monosaccharides white crystalline solids freely water soluble with sweet taste Stereoisomers2
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