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lec30 soon-yi part 4 ETC and ATP counting

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Baker

BCH210H1 LECTURE 30 Case Study Soonyi Part IV How ATP is Made in Mitochondria 1 Electron Transport the Complexes 2 Energy in Electron Flow and PO Ratios 3 ATP Accounting Glycolysis in Krebs 4 Mitchells Chemiosmotic Theory and ATP Generation MechanismSoonyi Part 4 Halfway at the Waterworks How ATP is Made in MitochondriaAs Soonyi crests the hill at the east end of the Beach she turns back to the boardwalk for the second half of her run as she heads west towards WoodbineShe is cruising at 250 mminImportant question how do mitochondria make ATP via the energy in NADH FADH 2 Soonyi now is an efficient ATP generating machineThis is brought about by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondria membrane Electron TransportOxidative PhosphorylationElectrons are transferred down a series of carriers of lower energyo Energy is released as electrons go down carrierso ADP is phosphorylated to make ATP an water As you go down energy chain energy is released since going down lower energy of reduction potentialo Energy released is utilized to make ATP and water Krebs cycle and PDH complex in matrix Electron transportfound in inner membraneElectrons flow from NADH or FADH down a chain of electron carriers 2o Each carrier can take part in oxidationreduction reactionThe last electron acceptor is O and it is turned into water 2 Electrons flow down the chain through a series of carriers as the energy of reduction of each carrier is usually less than the one before itThus electrons are transferred from an electron donor reducing agent to an electron acceptor oxidizing agent o Think of a series of individuals down an energy hill Electron transport carriers are arrayed down the hill o Lots of energy on top of hill o Passed on stepdown ladder o Each individual has a bucket 1BCH210H1 LECTURE 30Filledreduced emptiedoxidizedo NADH puts electron into bucket of one belowFirst NAD becomes oxidized next one is now reduced since bucket is now filled Doneroxidized receiverreduced Releasing energy in a controlled manner as you go downhill of reduction potentialThe release of energy is used to drive ATP synthesis o ADPPiATPHO 2 Every time you make ATP you make a water y Making anhydride link releasing water Ability of a reducing agent to lose electrons is measured in volts by the Standard Reduction Potential E o Reduction energy E measures ability of compound to release electronNADH E032 volts y Good reducing agent y Likely to give up its electronHO E082 volts 2y Poor reducing agent directional signs y Electrons flow from more negative to more positive EWithin inner membrane electron carriers are arranged in complexes o 4 in membraneComplex I NADH dehydrogenaseentry point for electrons from NADHTop of hill with various carriersStarting with standard reduction potential of 032V and NADHNADH donates a hydride ion H2 electrons1 proton to the next carrier FMN o Hydride ionH Electronsenergetic elements proton just there for the ride o Donate this to reduce FMN o NADH carrying hydrideHNADHHFMNNADFMNH 2 In turn FMNH is used to reduce CoQ by donating its electrons2o Becomes reduced to CoQ H 2 Significant step down in energy as measured by E o First step down some energy is released Leads to Complex IICoQ is picked up by Complex II 2
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