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Lecture 18

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James Thomson

The fisher – write debate Fisher was wrong because he ignored the genetic drift - Geographical variation and genetic differentiation of populations - Gene flow – organisms move with gometes - Genetic drift Population - A group of individual of a single species occupying a given area at the same time. Estimating population – mark recapture studies to keep track of individuals in populations. Animals – mobal, plats – the problem is in seeds. estimating the population is difficult Migration - The movement of organism from one population to another. Required for gene flow. Problems with difference between species, species are not accepted in some populations Gene flow - The movement of genes from one population to another Key questions relate to geographic differentiation - How is diversity distributed within vs. between population? The differentiation in human variability resides in one sample then between races - Is it due to local adaptation? Effects of selection, gene flow & genetic drift on population divergence 1) Natural selection: drive populations apart 2) Genetic drift: drive apart 3) Gene flow: if you lose an allele in one population we can find it in another population and return it Measure gene flow - Difficult to observe and measure - Potential vs. actual - Gamete vs. individual. Marine organisms, males damp sperm in water, so gametes can move to the other population - Use experimental approaches – best way - Natural genetic markers: polymorphic locus(gene) neutral genetic variation that is used to study gene flow Two populations fixed for alternative allels One population with FF, another SS, take offspring from both and mate them, score heterozygotes FS Frequency of heterozygotes = an estimate of gene flow Practical application: genetically modified organisms(GMO); naturalist philosophy – just not natural. Genes can move fro
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