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Lecture 21

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University of Toronto St. George
James Thomson

Lecture 21 Phylogenetics & Macroevolution Macroevolution - not experimental field, try to reconstruct lineage Darwin, 1837: “the Transmutation of Species” notebook “I think” above his first evolutionary tree Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778): the farther of taxonomy - Binomial nomenclature - Hierarchical system of classification - Boxes within boxes Biological classification - Name is a key to the literature on an organism; don’t have a name cannot get access to information - Predictive power - Taxon: a named taxonomic unit at any level - Taxonomy o The theory and practice of classification - Systematics o Study biodiversity and the evolutionary relationships Schools of Taxonomy - Phonetics o Classifying species based solely on overall resemblance o It’s dead - Cladistics o Classifying species on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships o Willi Hennig (1913-1976), German, founder of cladistics; phulogeny is the best hypothesis about evolutionary tree The only figure in the Origin was a tree - Monopyletic group o A single ancestor gave rise to all species in that taxon and no pecies in any taxon - Non-monophyletic group o A taxon whose members are derived from two or more ancestral forms not common to all members - Homology o Similarity of traits due to shared ancestry - Homoplasy o Result of the convergent evolution (  succulence – preserve water in tissue & spiny growth to defend from animals)
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