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Lecture 11

Biology Lecture 11 Article 2.docx

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Scott Browning

BIOLOGY LECTURE 11 Spatial Ecology + Conservation  Spatial ecology investigates the immense variety of spatial patterns in nature + their ecological  Spatial + temporal variation in the distribution and abundance of vital resources, and geological and ecological processes, results in landscape spatial heterogeneity AKA *HABITAT PATHINESS  Terrestrial systems: patchiness involves spatial variation in topography, bedrock, soils, nutrient, or water that affect plant distribution, and kind of determines animal ones too  Natural disturbances also create patchiness, by altering the structure of populations and causing changing in resource availability or physical environment  Species may generate their own patches by their clumped dispersal patterns (AKA SPATIAL PATTERN FORMATION)  SPATIAL ECOLOGY = land scape ecology (causes and consequences of spatial heterogeneity for ecological processes) + research in pop/community ecology  Studies of habitat patchiness emphasize patterns and outcomes on human-caused landscape heterogeneity rather than naturally occurring  Natural patchiness and human activities interact to make spatial patterns we see Definition + Scope of Spatial Ecology  Kareica – “Space: the final frontier for ecological theory” o Wanted people to use spatial patterns and processing into ecological research, which came from the convergence of research in landscape ecology and pop/com ecology in the past o Spatial Ecology centers on how specific spatial arrangements of organisms, populations, and landscape influence ecological dynamics o Related to conservation biology cause it emphasizes the study of habitat loss and fragmentation caused by human activities Spatial Ecological Theory  Several key ecological theories contribute to spatial ecology  Basic notation of species area curves: reveals that as the size of a natural area increases, the # of species in that area increases too o Species richness is tightly linked to habitat area – species declines cause rate of habitat loss are unprecedented  Theory of Island Biography: predicts that the larger and less isolated islands will have more species than smaller more isolated ones  Metapopulation Theory: recognizes that local pops of organism undergo periodic colonization and extinction, but that these local pops are linked to other pops by nearby migrations o Collection of local pops can persist if rates of local pop extinction are balanced by rates of colonization from surrounding pops  Metacommunity theory: and extension of metapop theory – instead of single species pop going in and out of scattered habitat patches, looks at multiple species o Collection of communities connected by dispersal o Seeks to understand how habitat patchiness structures how species interact Effects of Spatial Variation on Species + Ecosystems  Fragmented landscapes are spatially complex patchworks where pops and species have shifted significantly  Ex) native species have decreas
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