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ALL of Thomson's Ecology Lecture Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Spencer Barrett

Lecture 1 9/24/2012 8:01:00 AM Each organism have their own characteristics. Abiotic – non-biological attributes, Conditions – not going to be used up, doesn’t affect it Bell shape curve Intermediate range in the middle, can survive but can’t grow High – can grow but can’t reproduce Mean zone – neutral conditions of surviving Mount Everest – death zone, outside range of tolerance Limit distribution – big factors – temperature and soil moisture – equally important – most import Secondary facts after first 2 in pg. 10 Nitrogen most important nutrients Micro-nutrients Macro-nutrients n,p,k Disturbance – fires… Interaction with other species, diseases Other factors act on smaller scales Animals Habitat quality – animals select habits Osmotic balance important, kidney functions than hose in salt water Temp – warm in equator, cold in poles Variation of rainfall, season, = what kinds of animals are found. Sun Right angle, equator – intensity of sun is higher Earth tilted on axis with respect to sun Atmospheric circulation Air close to surface is hot Air that is heated become less dense, - particles bouncing around Warm air has lots of water molecule – vapour in air Air rises, air vapour cools off Decompress gas – temp drop When cold enough, vapor can not be gas – condenses and becomes rain Warm air pushing packets upwards, and reach atmosphere, nowhere to go but pushed and squeezed north and south away from equator – roughly 30 degrees north/south Air desends, no precipitation, moisture back at tripoical regions, - high pressure areas – dry – blue sky – can create desert habitat Air moves around – changes temp Hadley cell 0-30 degrees Ferrell cell goes opposite direction Dry air descending – pushed in both directions 60 degrees – air rises intertropical convergence zone thunderstorm – air is rising sucked in from north and south – rising up – intertropical convergence zone between two tropics – cancer and tropicforeign pushed around by air flows asia has much bigger excursion south America and east Africa – rains whole year – evergreen tropical rainforest asia – pronounced dry area – brings rain – seasonal tropics – lots of rain (monsoonal rain) during rain periods significant event for agriculture wind directions – predictable still air into conveyor belt imparts northern and southern complication – earth spinning on axis – earth sphere – air packet arriving in one longitude moving north or south will descend in a different latitude because earth has spun by the time it will differ between 30 degrees north and south – tend to move toward convergence zones east winds – others easterly - from west to east – important of trading of commerce 30 degrees north and south – horse latitudes – air descending form higher atmosphere horse lattitudes – air is weak and unpredictable – ship be calmed in these latitudes in the middle – unpredictable winds westerly winds – Canada prevailing westerly winds come from west west to east southern 40’s more strong winds albatross uses wind waves – dymanic soaring – hardly flaps wings at all snap wings in place – manipulate wind vegetation – determined by moisture and temp – produce more plant productivity – grow more – vegetation has higher stature. Tropical rainforest – high productivity Ecological convergence – create same biomes under those conditions React to biome and precipitation Tundra – cold enough Toronto – temperate deciduous forest Bighest productivity at 400’s And lowest productivity – bottom more warm colors Deserts near 40 degrees north and south Maritimea dn continental climates Water - resistance to change Land suface – heat up quickly Extremely differences Coast – less variations – summers and winters has less fluctuation Mountains produce lots of patterns Wine grapes –grown where there is abundance of water Water is moderated influence so spring comes later Work with the latitude trend to work with the winds Driest deserts – cold water upwelling – 5 driest places in the world – ocean current that rises from low in the ocean (bringing cold water from bottom of the ocean) Land heats up faster – off shore breezes – not much water vapor because equilibrium determined by water temperature – violent hurricanes… when water is warm Rain shadows – driest part of central part of continent – in the rain shadow created by shadow of the rocky mountains – rain shadow workings – wind contain air with certain amounts of water vapor – when washed ashore – hot air rises – push by winds, up and up and precipitation comes out of it as rain or snow Windward side – lots of rain and snow Air precipitate out – air dry – over ridge of mountains and rolls off other side Heats up from aviartic – friction from moving – wet on west – dry on east Temp getting colder up a mountain side – important part of geological geology Top of vegetation, like Canada in the heat of Mexico – north of Canada Side with most sun – green from irrigation – heat solar and lots of sun heat – low and greyish Trees growing on high rise mountains Forest across entire face – forests and greenery all over the mountain Continuation ground cover – more foliage Pinion pine – 1600m - 1900m pines drop out – ponderosive pines - leaf less because leaves are dropped in the fall Top of the mountain – spruce and fur forest Topography – exert big influence on - moving from one system to an entire new environment Lecture 9/24/2012 8:01:00 AM Physiological physiology Ranges of tolerance – biochemistry – responsible on chemical reactions – mediated by enzymes (proteins) - coagulate when too high in temp Some have wide range while some are more narrow Homeostasis – mechanisms keeping internal bounded when exposed to extreme environments Gazing animal – pronghorn – wide habitat range – from hot climates to cold ones – ranges – large latitudinal stride – west in grasslands, but not in the mountains – not built for that kind of habitat – not good at jumping – flat not steep terrain – fastest animal in North America Geological ranges – Tigers – tropical rainforest – boreal forest – broad temp tolerance and habitat range Gaining or losing heat from environment – controlled by the organisms Radiation – net flow from me to environment – we generate 60 watts of heat – out into the room – usually from heat Environment – from environment to me Conduction – direct contact – hot and cold in contact – conductive heat flow Convection – not as warm when wind is blowing Evaporation – tied up with convection – moist surface – water form liquid phase to gas phase – heat input – loss of heat – sweating, lose heat faster Redistribution – move fluids from place to place Most important characteristics affecting heat balance – bigger things, has a lot more mass and surface area – ratio of surface area over volume – Least efficient – flat plain Small spheres equivocate quickly – reach water faster Bigger animals – in colder areas Smaller animals – in hotter areas Allen’s rule – shape rather than size Cold – more spherical – hot – more flat, ears Pika – adapted for cold – roll up into a ball Ears provides lots of surface area – cools body INSULATION – northern animals – Arteries and veins are pressed – temp differential from hot to cold all the way from the path Regains heat from red arrows that otherwise would decrease 2013-04-15 Pump hot blood and receive cold blood Elephant – trunk – giant ears – cooling down Licking arms and legs to cool down and catch winds Lecture 3 9/24/2012 8:01:00 AM Physical challenges of the environment for animals, emphasis on tradeoffs and alternatives  Animal physiology  Homeotherms – do various things to maintain homeostasis – keep body temp within certain ranges  Tradeoff principle o Weasel – long, thin, long neck – shape?  Reduced the SA/V Metabolism of weasels: the cost of being long and thin  Document physiologival vost of the thinness of weasels  Weasel – long thin – has more SA/V ratio than wood rats o Northern species o Body shape suited for warm climates but lives in cold climates  Advantages of being long and thin? o Weasels role as predators, vicious, take on animals as large as they themselves are o Need to be able to fit into a narrow burrow buried by rats and food – access to their prey o Short fur – less insulation – need that for special role for preying on underground rodents  Pocket gopher – adaptations – large claws – small, not very effective eyes – live in almost complete darkness – small ears because large flappy ears are in the way of underground digging – cheeks help with the chewing of food o Eating food and build up metabolic rates to go through cold winters  Cant be a good predator on underground and being in a good shape for maximum warmth – natural selection must go one way or another – never perfect  Constrains – decent with modification – all organisms are similar to their parents – vary in ways – most subtle – builds from what is already there – small adjustments o Natural selection – limited Water conservations – osmotic balance – desert rats 2013-04-15  Live in habitats that have no water to drink – no need to water for almost ever – if they have food sources, they do not need water o ANATOMY – erect posture – bipedal – hops around – conductive heat gain from their bodies – conduction heat transfer by direct contact o PHYSIOLOGY – kidney – more efficient than humans – eliminate urine 8x better than humans – don’t need that much water – from metabolic water – producing fat molecules and create water metabolically – turn enough water to run efficiently o BEHAVIOUR – nocturnal – only to go out to mate and get what food they need – avoid heat – deserts cool at night o Collect seeds from environment – collect seeds in their seeds – stash sees and bring back to burrow – treat as a pantry o Seeds – hydroscopic – absorb water from the air – water vapor captured by the seeds and held in the seeds – also can collect water – conserve water Physiological stress becomes overwhelming: evasions  Evade bad climates o Enter dormant stage – slow down metabolism – less vulnerable o Hibernation – dropping metabolic rate to sleep through an unfavorable season – especially winter o Protected nest – away from harsh conditions o Store food – like kangaroo rat – in the burrows o Migration – move to milder climates that have more food – easier to get  Plants – dormant stage – have adult plant dies and get through with the seeds  Insects – winter non-existent – spring comes back from probably eggs  Frogs – freeze in the winter – amphibian popsicle o Managed internally – cells and organs are not damaged  Torpid state – heart rate, metabolic rate drop drastically 2013-04-15 Animals good at evading  Garter snake hibernaculum and rattle snakes – where animals congregate – move to places they are familiar with and ball up in to a cluster  Chipmunks – sleeping underground in the winters – subset of the squirrels and rodents – have a special tissue, brown fat, super food reserves – eats and fattens up in the summer than sleeps it off in the winter  Muskrat – larger rodents – aquatic – build nests in the winter to survive – with food supply – they can get through winter Winter in the mountains: migrants vs. permanent residnets  Bluebird – fruit and insects – abundant only in the summer  Hummingbird – turn into hummingbird fat – feed on flowers and insects  Gray jay – eat a whole variety of foods – willing to investigate anything that might be food and make good use of it when it is food – opportunistic animal – flexible behavior – high cognitive function in these animals  Crossbill – beaks – gets nuts in the pine cones on coniferous  Birds can get through winter if they have enough food supplies Making hay – store food and put foods in the environment – can remember more than 1000 places where they put the food and will come back a year later to collect it  Pika – active all winter in rocky habitats – not adapted to withstand heat – in summer, they go out and collect different plants – make hay – dried pile of plants for the winter Basic conclusions for physiological ecology of animals  Plants have tougher time than animals o Animals – behavior – move from one place to another o Plants – stuck at where they are – they simply cannot move around – migrate  ANATOMY – size, shape, insulations, vascularization 2013-04-15  BEHAVIOUR – parental care – most higher animals and reptiles – most vulnerable to environmental stress is when your small – animals start smaller than parents – baby animals have greater environment stresses than the parents – extended parental care – does things that ameliorate the stresses upon the babies  ADAPTIONS – working together  Characteristic of natural selection – multiple adaptations to work together to approach maximum productivity  Cellular and molecular mechanisms – WRITTEN ANOUNCEMENT ON BLACKBORD o No one universal solutions that all animals go to – which natural selection adopts depends on the starting point  Lecture 4 9/24/2012 8:01:00 AM Plant ecophysiology of carbon balance: tradeoffs and constraints abound  Control their bodies and physiology – in some waysuu animals do  Not eat food like animals – through photosynthesis o Molecular pathways – o Carbon oxide and water ->photosynthesis-> carbohydare and oxygen o Other way around uses respiration  Gas exchange into environment – or rxn won’t work  Water is needed to run the whole thing  Light – energy  ALL above to work optimally  Tissue = osmotic balance  Nutrients – Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous Photosynthetic structures embody adaption to environmental stresses  Structures are usually leaves o Size and shape – SA:V  Benefit – SA  Costs – light is need, rest of light transfers heat energy to the leaf – vulnerable to cooking in the light –  Has to prevent the enzymes from coagulating  Cool down by evaporation IF they have enough water  Stomata – leaves surfaces – hundreds and thousands of pores that open and closes on the side of the plant  Shut down to conserve water  Open allows heat conservation to evaporation  Plants ability to save water and grow at the same time. Keeping cool while conserving water:  Looks fine grained – desert – leaves are small  Palo Verde – (green stick) o Contain chlorophyll and photosynthesize –  Have thin bark that does bad job of protection of the bark tissues – but can photosynthesis – not a good one because SA is so small 2013-04-15  Microphylly – tiny leaf – SA:V ratio is reduced – usual overheating in the summer  Microphyly in mesquite o In deserts – reduced leaf size to not any leaves at all  Prickly pear cactus – no leaves – flat pads on cactuses are modified stems  South – face thin side towards the south  Orientation of cactus helps less heat coming in  To get water supply – roots do not go DEEP but extend far away  Episodic patterns of water waailability in Sonoran desert: Rillito River, Rucson, Arizona o Saguaro cactus – iconic plant at water storing  Bulky body  Multiple side branches are usually over 200 yrs  When rain comes – the extensive roots are good at absorbing the water in the tissue – succulent tissues  Can absorb up to 800L in one storm and gradually using it  Tissue is pleated – alternating ribs and grooves – grow in diameter to accomidate more water Animals can evade stress through behavior: what about plants  Animals move around to accommodate  Plants cannot move around o They evade try seasons to be deciduous – drops leaves during stressful season o Cold weather – cannot photosynthesis – leaves will suffer damage from winter and the chill  Mountain shadow – rainshadows – drought brought seasonally Terminological clarification: “evergreen:  Tress leaves kept on plant every season Contrast between mesophyll to sclerophyll plants  Mesophyll - Large SA 2013-04-15  Sclerophyll – tough and leathery, waxy coverings Flow –  Laminar flow – smooth –  Turbulent flow – bump called Eddies – reduces the ability of an object to move through the air – resistant is sometimes good and resistance  Boundary layer – thin layer of air that is closes to the surface o Narrow surface air slows down to the point of not moving  Stagment air – boundary layer – heat going to heat up – meaning evaporate – and not enough carbon oxide out – NO BOUNDARY LAYER  Bumps – agitated o Keeping a leaf cool – turbulent air is better to cool down  Other shapes to make it cool – plastic developmental layers  Small outline cutouts on the inside  Leaves on the outside of the same tree near the sunlight – more shaped – zigzags  Tropic plant – monster deliciosa o Holes in the leaf – because changes outside contours doesn’t help as much, they have to produce holes in the leaf to help with the cooling  Reclusive digression – in cold environment – make outside body as smooth as possible to keep out the cold air o In hot environment – make body with bigger body to create turbulence  Nurse tree effect: saguaro seedling sheltered by Palo Verde o Started off in the partial shade – shade softens blasting effects of the sun – when it grows – grows beyond other trees and will be capable of handling the full sun stress when older o Like day care center – until cactus seedling is good to be own – they are protected Life form digression: the uprooted life of epiphytes 2013-04-15  Functional class – from different fam
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