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Lecture 14

BIO120H1 lecture 14-22

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Kenneth Bartlett

Lecture 15 Darwin grew up in woods southern england and poor environment where there were barely any species Where he went there were many more than where he grew up CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TWOmany more biotic interactions plant plant plant animal etcVery little interactions going on here because of winter is very severeYear round warmth is important for the growthMicroorganisms also grow a lot faster so disease is also significantly bigger in the tropicsDistance in between individuals of the same species is very very large different compare to here pine tree right next one to it probablySpecies diversity causes distances in between speciesmost of these trees are wind pollinated pollinate in spring leaf out in later in summer june trees like ash oak they flower because no catapi in north americatropics trees pollinate all year round but instead use animals to move one tree to the next Animals used for pollinated so long distance matingTemperate forest has same amount of trees as in tropical forest but more species diversity in the tropics DANIEL JANZENmost famous tropical ecologistHe proved it by mark and recapture of bees HUGE bees They can travel enormous distances in day Trapline foraging is how the move Each day they go through a path along the trees and move on to the next oneSeeds dispersed long distances too in the tropicslow probability if the seed is implanting right under the parent and high if its farpathogens go on the seedlings that is below the treefar away you can avoid pathogen pressure Acacia plant produces hollow thorns in those thorns there are ants plant produces food sources for plantslittle packets of proteins on plants being eaten by plantAcacia produces nectar in and outside of flower extraflowerants also feed on that2 food sources plus shelter for antsThe plant gets Janson who did the experiment to see The ants are very frightful and they defend the plant from the beatles mutualismAnt plant mutualismdevils garden no other plant that grows around this plant Plant ant interaction they defend the plant Formic acid from plants attacks nearby plants and kills them to protect its resourceLilies real one in tropics and fake one in berlinEpiphytes grow on other plants this is a good example of convergent evolutionLayers of species on top of trees like epiphytes so that increases species diversityRed bracts are more showy but whyVisitation by pollinators is a lot less so its purpose is to show off Darwin went to brazil and saw huge fossils of armadillosPatagonia is completely different wind and freezing conditions abiotic factors no mutualisms or anythingHe experienced his first earthquake in chile Galapagos islands15 islandsnew island and naturalist got there firstThese plants have close relatives in ecuador probably goes backintraspecific variationThese species are diverging still because its still young and liable to evolutionVery young landscapes are not full of species despite tropicalBird dispersal is how the species came from ecuadorcactus has good dispersal powers Darwins finchesdifferent species fed on different kinds of fooddifference in beaks daphne major is where they go for experimentpeter and rosemary granttheyre documenting natural selection and measuring strength of natural selections Long experiments 35 period ADAPTIVE RADIATIONsingle species diverges into two species1common ancestry2correlation between phenotype and environment3trait utility4rapid speciation oldest living individual 170 years old huge tortoiseTurtle you can keep them upside down and keep them alive and by hanging them upside down different islands had different subspeciesthey all converged into different types
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