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Lecture 6

BIO120 Lecture 6 Notes

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James Thomson

Lecture 6 Population ecology models without age structure Slide NotesPopulationcollection of individuals of the same species population are delimited ie surrounded Npopulation size number of individuals Population DensityNarea in a certain area Population ecologyfocusses on factors in the environment that determine the size of populations Population geneticslooking at the genetic makeup of populations Ususally for animals its easier to recognize and determine individuals Plants and some groups of animals are more difficult to determineLarkspursflowers make lots of seeds as a result of being pollinated each seed is s unique genotype the seeds are spread through the environment and they growAspensThey are clonal stems that come from the same seed one seed produces many identical connected stems All trees have the same genotype DandelionThey are triploid rather than diploid which means that they cant have sex and a dandelion plant acts as a female and makes a lot of seeds that replicate her genotype exactly so there are no males in this plant Many identical seeds produce many identical unconnected plantsDiscrete time steps difference Infinitesimal stepsgrowing continuously equation arithmeticdifferential equations calculus Density independentGeometric growth modeladd Exponential growth modelage structure Density dependentNone Logistic growth modeladd allee effects add time lags In density independent models population can grow without any effect of competition There is never a crowded population In density dependent models there is a population that gets overcrowded and runs out of resources the general model is N fN t1 t When using differential equations time steps are infinitesimally small use concept of limitscalculus growth is smooth best suited for species with continuous reproduction When using difference equations time steps are discrete units days years etc use iterated recursion equations growth is stepwise and bumpy best suited for episodic reproduction
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