Protein leakage from the glomerular capillaries into Bowman’s capsule would cause the
glomerular oncotic pressure to decrease, and Bowman’s capsule oncotic pressure to
increase . This would ultimately result in an increase in the net filtration pressure. The
glomerular oncotic pressure is the inverse relationship with filtration, wheres the Bowman’s
capsule oncotic pressure is that which favours filtration.
Alcohol increases urine production and hence promotes dehydration. This is due to the
antidiuretic hormone(ADH).This hormone is produced in the hypothalamus region of the brain,
and it stored and released by the pituitary gland. The osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus
stimulates the release. The Alcohol in beer inhibits the release of pituitary gland hormone
ADH from binding to its respective receptors, which prevents ADH from controlling the
amount of urine released. ADH is responsible for the retention of water in the kidney. Hence
water will not get reabsorbed in the collecting duct because of the suppression, and results in
a greater amount of urine production. Therefor more ADH would produce small volumes of
very concentrated urine, whereas less ADH would produced large quantities of dilute urine.
3.a. Less than 1% of water is readily available for direct human use, and even though we
are surrounded by water