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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 and 3 notes of Prof. Thomson

2 Pages
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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO120H1
Professor
Jon Abbatt

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Lecture 2 & 3:Physical challenges of the environment Geographic Ranges Animals Geographic ranges usually correspond to biomes (limit to climates or vegetation), but sometimes it is also affected by other factors:  Special habitats ○ Pronghorns have a broad temperature tolerance range but a narrow habitat range  Other organisms ( enemies, friends) ○ Elf owls, gila woodpekers depends on cactus.  Transcendent biomes ○ Tigers can live in any habitat either hot or cold.  History Thermal Ecology: Ways to gain or loss heat:  Radiation: emission of electromagnetic energy by a warm surface.  Conduction: transfer of the kinetic energy of heat between substances in contact with one another.  Convection: transfer of heat by the movement of liquids and gases  Evaporation: efficient cooling from wet surface.  Redistribution: circulatory system redistributes heat among body parts. Body size and thermal inertia:  Larger organisms tend to lose heat across their surfaces less rapidly than smaller individuals this is because the surface-to-volume ratio is smaller(V 比 SA 大). It is easier for them to maintain a constant internal environment in the face of varying external conditions. ○ Bergmann’s Rule: Homeotherms tend to be larger at a higher altitude.  Polar bear lives in the Artic are bigger than Sun bear that live in the tropics. ○ Allen’s Rule: appendages reduced in cold temperature.  Pika has spheri
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