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Lecture/ Chapter 7 Study Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Benjamin Wright

Lecture 7 Population Differentiation and Local Adaptation Key Concepts Terms: Genetic differentiation Geographical variation Population Phenotypic plasticity Migration Reciprocal transplant studies Gene flow Ecological race 1) Population differentiation: Gene flow, Geographical variation 2) Experimental studies of local adaptation: Phenotypic plasticity, Transplant studies If there is no mating then there is no gene flow Number One: Populations are frequently sub-divided into smaller units based on ecological or behaviour factors. For example, populations of fish in tide pools, trees in farmland woodlots, and insects on host plants, are sub- divided because suitable habitats are not continuous in distribution. In fact, a continuum exists between large populations with random mating and small sub-divided populations with localized inbreeding. The degree to which a population can be delimited from other populations depends on the level of gene flow between them. Gene flow and migration are similar terms. Migration can be thought of as the movement of individuals from one population into another, whereas gene flow refers to the movement of genes from one population into another. The degree to which gene flow takes place depends on the size of the gaps that separate populations of a particular species, the degree to which individuals move, and the distance over which mating can take place. If gene flow between two populations is extensive, the two populations may become, in effect, one panmictic (random mating) population. Thus the rate of gene flow influences the effective size of the
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