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Lecture 12

Lecture 12-23 from lectures

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University of Toronto St. George
Jean Jiang Nash

Lec12 Intro to Evolutionary Bio 07:38 Jerry coyne wrote book on speciation Approaches Observational collect date by seeing whats happening Theoretical 3 types of develop models Verbal narrative How you think the world works -> verbalize it Graphical model What does it predict (linear, curved linear) Mathematical Equations, models Comparative collect from # of species see if robust Experimental test preceding obs, theory, comparative data Biodiversity & Adaption Biodiversity: James: species diversity: number of species in particular place Idea that species: also have populations genetically variable Genetic variation = part of biodiversity Life = genealogical hierarchy From gene -> pop -> species -> genre -> family Adaptation Noun: a trait (smt as an adaptation) Trait = charactercharacteristic of org feature -> contributes to fitness how many genes you pass on to next generation vs another indivi in pop, pass more gene = more fit better able to survivereproduce in env Verb: process, evo process leads to origin of maintenance of traits (above) Scientists Bc evo = historical science Focus on scientists + history of field Pics of ppl and know who ppl are Theodosius Dobzhansky Invented fruit fly genetics Used fruit fly as model system for understanding population genetics, mutation, etc James D. Watson Molecular biologist Evolutionary mechanisms Study at population lvl Ecology + genetics of evolutionary change www.notesolution.comOrganisms have genes that are transferred to next generation How well they do that depends on env theyre in + traits they have Interested in: measuring natural selection Studying adaptations, speciation, process that give rise to diversity Test models in labs + fields Can study evo today: bacteria in hospitals, in your stomach Evo never stops, as long as life exists it exists Contemporary Herbicide resistance Evolutionary history Orgs traits are from common ancestors Evo in the past Study by determining: evolutionary relationships among orgs phylogenetic (tree of life) Collect comparative data Genetics provide evidence for tree of life Look at how many alleles we share with other orgs Electrophoresis of protein coding genes, study 20-30 genes, grad student: genomic approaches (20,000 genes) + bioinformatics can look at hundreds of thousands of genes Barret Lab1 PhD thesis on worlds worst aquatic weed (water hyacinth) Costs billions of dollars around world to control it Cannot get rid of it w herbicides bc in lakes, rice fields, dams, reservoirs Reproduces colonially + sexually (dual reproductive strategies) World record cloning ability Darwin predicted there should be a certain form of plant (only got 2 forms), there is a missing form 3 diff kinds of sexes, differ in position of sex organs J. Bombay Nat. looked for Darwins missing form Barret found the 3 type Darwins missing form (found in Amazon bc plant has been spread around world by humans, that form was one that was not spread around) Founder event Very little diversity in old world, but lot more diversity in new areas Humans can affect spread of genetics + affect dramatically Barret Lab2 Babiana ringens (Rats Tail) Bird polination, what polinates it? Flowers on the ground = red (symbols bird polination) www.notesolution.comFunctions as a perch Humming birds hover, sunbirds + honey-eaters perch Sunbirds, grabs perch, upside down to pollinate Cut out sex organs Affect quantity + quality of seeds Used genetic markers Visitation only by female birds (go to ground) Males dont go on ground bc of long tail Cross pollination dropped, most were self seeded = without perch Perch = adaptation optimizing reproductive success Evo: branches were suppressed to give perch
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