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Belinda Chang

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Lecture 2 Intro to Nucleic Acids & Proteins Nucleic Acid Chains 1. DNA is synthesized from deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, otherwise known as: dNTPs things that are used to make this linear structure. 2 phosphates get removed during this process. 2. RNA is synthesized from ribonucleoside triphosphates, or: NTPs 3. Nucleotides are linked by: phosphodiester bonds (through phosphate groups) Base Pairing - DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded in order for replication & transmission of info contained in DNA strand, it needs to be double-stranded. Basis of exactly how those strands together is mediated through process called base pairing ensures that base opposite of it in opposing strand is specific base bc not all bases are complementary to each other. 1. Holds DNA double helix together 2. A-T 2 H-bonds G-C 3 H-bonds H-bonds form, helping to keep 2 strands together Strands run anti-parallel 3 forces that keep DNA together: 1. H-bonds dipole-dipole interactions with each other 2. Van der Waals are induced dipoles (slight variation in positive & negative charge) clouds of e- that when they come near each other induce dipoles in each other. 3. Hydrophobic interactions tendency to avoid water stacking bw bases which are very hydrophobic particularly ring structure tend to like to stack in certain way. DNA Structure - Info is always read 5 to 3 DNA is composed of 2 antiparallel strands. Has ladder-like structure. Same info present on 1 strand is on other bc of complementarity of bases & this redundancy is extremely important for preservation of info. - DNA structure is organized into double helix ladder twists around itself forming major groove & minor groove. Interactions with turns of helix make DNA more stable.
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