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University of Toronto St. George
Jean Jiang Nash

LECTURE March 22, 2011 Cell cycle and programmed cell death Cell divides into two identical daughter cells Need to segregate components equally between the daughter cells o Precisely o Many control mechanisms are to ensure precisely equal distribution of chromosomes o Many cancers have wrong number or pieces of chromosome o ESSENTIAL STEP G1 = gap phase number 1 o Living and growing and duplicating its mitochdonria o Growing in size S phase o Synthesizes DNA chromosomes replicate G2 phase o Continues growing until double in size o Doubled everything Mitosis o Nuclear division followed by cytosolic division o End with two equivalent daughter cells Steps must be in order and controlled o Questions and answers come in molecular switches molecules phosphorylated, ubinquinated, etc. o Decisions made at special times in cycle called cell cycle checkpoints S-phase once enter S-phase, its committed can pause but must divide, otherwise undergo programmed cell death At any point, cell can wait or go Cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylates Only active when in complex with cyclin Portrayed on slide is the active form of complex Regulated by which cyclin it interacts with Are protein kinases Different cyclin-Cdk checkpoints at at different stages of the cell cycle o Different cyclin at M step and S step S-cyclin transcribed and translated cell indicating its ready to enter S phase M-cyclin phosphorylates things for mitosis Then degraded Table describing different cdk complexes Cylin d with cdk4 will drive past g1-cdk point Cdk2 involved in two different checkpoints a combinatorial effect
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