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University of Toronto St. George
Jean Jiang Nash

LECTURE April4th, 2011 DEVELOPMENT OF MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS Morphogenesis creation of 3d form in embryo How cells differentiate? 1 cell embryo has everything it needs to 1. Morphogenesis 2. Cell differentiation All based on transcriptional changes in cell encoded in genes Cell proliferation = mitosis, cytokinesis, cell division Cell specialization change in transcriptome, allowing cell to take on certain shape, function, Cell interaction cell signalling, cell to cell contact, adherens junctions, cell to matrix contact, etc. Cell migration movement early embryo very simple, to get more complicated, cells need to get together Whether to proliferate or not, which cells to interact with, where should migrate THESE DECISIONS SAME AS CANCER CELLS MADE only inappropriately It is important to know how model organisms develop, not just humans Anything that is the same in multiple organisms = identified a core developmental mechanism Limit in how the model will help But core mechanisms Body divides self into parts each compartment develops independently of other Development can be considered subdivision of subdivision of subdivision Development doesnt only occur in embryo same processes occurring all the time For instance, skin development o Constantly sloughing off old layer of skin developing from stem cell stage into mature skin cells o Skin stem cells either divide into more stem cells or differentiate into skin cells o Division is across stem cell division o Pink ones come from division of stem cells upwards pink at the top o Produce lots of keratin, start to die, sloughed off
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