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University of Toronto St. George
Jean Jiang Nash

LECTURE April4th, 2011 CELL DIFFERENTIATION How cells make themselves different from neighbouring cells Focuses on cell specialization and cell interaction Intrinsic Less common Depends on unequal segregation of something during cell division Original cell before division is asymmetric One daughter cell inherits all of the determinant, the other doesnt get any Can be transcription factor things that affect transcription that affects transcription right after division Extrinsic Signal from other daughter cell changes fate, developmental capacity, forming some cell type Cell without signal stays the way it is Intrinsic used commonly by c. elegans Every line is a cell division Divisions continue and parts of them Part of division part is shown all the way down to the adult From first cell division to 1100 cell Specific lineage Germ line forms from cells b-granules segregated to one side of embryo o Cell division polarized across horizontally o Germ line determinant o Abp, ms, ems- do not need to know o Asymmetric cell division partitions cell fate determinants to determine o Requires cortical polarity and proper spindle alignment Extrinsic mechanisms First one is lateral inhibition o Lateral on the sides o Creates a pattern of isolated differentiated cells o By notch signalling Delta is transmembrane signal Like boss Interacting with notch, transmembrane protein 2 cells, both expressing signal and receptor Activation of receptor inhibits specialization in both cells Then by chance, a cell expresses a little more delta, more notch activation in lower cell, then turns off own delta of lower cell Receiving cell no longer expresses delta Bottom cell is sending cell
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