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Lecture 12

BIO241 Lecture 12

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Darrel Desveaux

BIO241 Lecture 12 Cell Communication III - MAP Kinases activated by RTK, high conserved found in o yeast activated by G protein linked receptor responding to mating factor to form a diploid from two haploids, o yeast activated by histidine kinase associated receptor in response to high osmolarity (glycerol synthesis) specificity conferred by using different kinases but some initial kinases are shared, e.g. MAP-KKK A scaffold proteins contain multiple binding domains to bind to signalling proteins, it holds components of MAP K signalling cascade so they cant drift off to activate other pathways, domains on the scaffold can also act as a kinase once MAP is activated, it will leave the scaffold and move into the nucleus to P-ate transcription factors that mediate the transcription of genes o plants (receptor SerThr kinases, histidine kinase associated receptor) - JakSTAT signalling pathways (animals): activated by binding to cytokines and hormones, e.g. interferons, erythropoietin, growth hormone o Receptor made up of many proteins, some shared within family of receptors o All receptors associated with Jak tyrosine kinases, Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, Tyk2 o Binding to cytokine induces dimerizationcrosslinks of cytokine receptors, Jak kinases trans-P-ate and activate each other to P-ate tyrosine residues on receptors, this acts as a site of recruitment for STAT transcription factors with SH2 domains where Jak will P-ate tyrosine residues on STAT transcription factors, STAT will dissociate from receptors and dimerize with each other via SH2 domains and P-ated tyrosine, move into nucleus and associate with regulatory proteins transcription, activation of genes o Down-regulation: some genes activated by pathway code for inhibitory proteins that bind to activated receptors to prevent further activation, or phosphatases o E.g. erythropoietin is released from kidney when oxygen is low to induce the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis) precursor cells in bone
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