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Lecture

2- Terrestrial Biomes

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO120H1
Professor
James Thomson
Semester
Fall

Description
BIO120H1F Online Reading Series – 2 Sept 20 2012 #2 – Terrestrial Biomes Tropical Forest Biomes  Found near equator  Climate has little seasonal variation  High yearly rainfall, constant warm temperatures  Tall trees, ground layer of herbaceous vegetation  Highest biodiversity, highest primary productivity  High productivity b/c nutrients are gained through quick decomposition  Contains half of terrestrial species on earth  Composed of several different sub-biomes: Evergreen rainforest, seasonal deciduous forest, tropical cloud forest, mangrove forest  Net Primary Productivity: 2-3 kg/(m² * year) Savanna Biomes  North and south of tropical forest biomes  Lower rainfall, longer dry seasons  Mix of grasses and small trees  Covers 60% of Africa; a transition from tropical forests to Deserts  Trees are drought deciduous  Dry season fires occur, fire important, releases nutrients  Net Primary Productivity: 400-600 g/(m² * year)  Rich diversity of herbivores, dung beetles important for nutrient recycle Desert Biomes  Occur in band around 15-30 N and 15-30 S o  Cover 26-35% of land area of Earth  Low precipitation (less than 250mm per year)  Variety of deserts (Cold, Hot, high elevation, rain shadow)  Dominated by perennial shrubs with extensive roots  Warm deserts: therophyes make up most of species diversity  Net Primary Productivity: 0-120g/(m² * year) Grassland Biomes  Occur in interiors of continents; some of largest terrestrial animals are found here  Large seasonal temperature variation; very hot summer, very cold winter  High precipitation = tall grass prairie
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