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Lecture 8

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James Thomson

Lecture 8: Metapopulations, plant community composition Fender’s blue butterfly had been rediscovered. Willamette valley, Oregon, prairie Depends on lupine, females disperse, find that plant, put caterpillars on the plant so they can grow Ecobeaker simulation model Spatial map of habitat with 2 types of vegetation: prairie and farm. Butterfly’s caterpillars survive only in prairie. Butterflies must discover prairie or will die without reproducing. Smaller patches of prairie cannot handle population of butterflies so they go extinct. Little patch can keep going if there is a big population in the neighborhood by migration Conclusion: a bigger patch can help out to a patch that is going to extinction by rescue/migration Andy Smith, Bodie, California – Pika research. Pika populations in tailing pile are good pika habitat. Prefer rocky habitat What is % of patches with pika? 1) North patch network: high, stable, anchored by big reservoirs 2) Middle: low, extinction/renewal 3) South: marginal, in decline From metapopulation model: 1) High, stable 2) Low,stable 3) Unstable Patches are connected by migration -> uncoupled the patches: 1) Doing well, source, dispersing population to middle and south populaiton 2) Sink population, goes extinct without source population 3) Sink Metapopulation – how organisms in the area connected to the rest of the world Model population drive extinct in several ways: - Strong density-dependence - Unstable competition - Unstable predator-prey - Allee effects at low density In real life these tendencies are smoothened by non-equilibrium conditions, habitat patchiness, rescue- by-migration, variation in life-
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