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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 & 4

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Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Lecture 3 & 4 22:11 Core Ideas in Physiological Ecology Ranges of tolerance ultimately limit distribution Reactions occur best at optimum temperature and osmotic conditions Two types of range: range tolerance and geographical ranges Animal ranges often correspond to biomes, i.e., limited by climate andor vegetation Organismal Digression: some animal ranges can transcend biomes (e.g., the tiger can live in the cold or desert) Thermal Ecology: aspects of heat exchange with environment Radiation: heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation Conduction: direct contact with substrate (e.g., feet lose heat to ground) Convection: heat transfer mediated by moving fluid (usually air or water) Evaporation: efficient cooling from wet surfaces Circulatory system distributes heat among body parts The larger the surface area, the slower the equilibration. This is advantageous for animals. If you are large, you can maintain your body heat easier. Size matters: Bergmanns Rule: homeotherms tend to be larger at higher latitudes. (Colder environments) What about elephants, rhinoceroses? Elephant dont violate Bergmanns rule because of the wooly mammoths that have gone extinct but used to live in northern latitudes. Shape Matters: Allens Rule: appendages reduced in cold climates Sphere has least SA:V E.g., rabbits in the arctic and in the desert Insulation Matters:
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