Class Notes (836,580)
Canada (509,856)
Biology (2,229)
BIO130H1 (434)
Lecture

BIO130 Notes point form T1.docx

3 Pages
84 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biology
Course
BIO130H1
Professor
Gillian Rowe
Semester
Winter

Description
Model organisms -C-terminus: free carboxyl group (-) -short generation time -in chain, after condensation, amino turns to amide and -small adult form carboxyl turns to carbonyl -tractability -Cysteine: can from disulphide bonds with in chain -genetics well understood (creates hair pin structures), happens in oxidized situations (R’CH2SH, condensation reaction, CH S2SCH )2 Genetic code -order of AA’s are important, same chain reversed is -64 triplets chemically different -more than 1 codon per AA -universal(mostly) Genome -degenerate: variability, allows mutation tolerance -complexity not correlated with size -Start codon: AUG, encodes for Euk: Met, Prok: fMet -only 1.5% codes for proteins -Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA -50% is repetitive -did in RNA/DNA codons -added by Telomerase -similar are closer together (polarity, acidity) -sequence determined by RNA template in telomerase -Mutational steps: # of nucleotide changes to get to another codon Telomeres -at ends, when the primer is removed Nucleic Acids -portion of the 5’ daughter sequence (lagging strand) -monomers, nucleotides: base + sugar + phosphate(s) short -nucleoside: base + sugar -nothing can be added (5’ end) -U C The pyramids (pyrimidines: single ringed) -add a long repetitive sequence on the 3’ end of the -Pure Silver: Ag (purines: double ringed) parental sequence and base paring with itself to create -N-glycosidic bond: Base nitrogen 9(pur) or 1(pyr) to 1’ a “loop” sugar carbon -GC rich sequence -Phosphodiester bond: 5’ sugar carbon to 3’ phosphate -cancer cells have long -Purines always pair with pyrimidines, A=T/U, C≡G telomers -cells that replicate a lot Central Dogma have longer telomeres -Genome: DNA sequence of entire organism -Transcriptome: RNA sequence of entire organism -Proteome: complete set of proteins in cell or organism -Interactome: complete set of interactions between proteins and molecules in cell and organism -Metabolome: complete set of small metabellets (not DNA, RNA eg. Pyruvate, lactose) -Phenome: complete set of phenotypes PCR -dNTP’s, primers, DNA polymerase(72 degrees) - 1 dsDNA –Heat to Denature-> 2 ssDNA –decrease temperature-> primers aneal to segment of interest – heat to extend with taq polymerase-> thermostable polymerase extends strands, 2 dsDNA REPEAT Proteins -polypeptide: polymer -modification of telomerase RNA template can interfere -Amino Acid: monomer with cancer growth but can age someone fast (lose -Peptide bond: Condensation rxn, alpha amino group to important genetic information) alpha carboxyl group, R’ not involved -types of AA: NP, P uncharged, Pcharged basic or Topoisomerase Pcharged acidic -DNA supercoils same direction as helix, + supercoils -uses: regulation, signaling, structure, transport, -DNA supercoils in opposite direction, - supercoils enzyme -replication introduces supercoils in the + direction -N-terminus: free alpha amino group (+) Type 1: Stress Release -single strand breaks, rotates one stand of backbone Depurination: entire guanine or adenine is removed around from nucleotide, after replication, one daughter DNA is -has tyrosine at active site missing a base pair (reading frame shifted) -phosphodiester bond reform spontaneously Deamination Type 2: untangle and separate -the amine group on cytosine gets cleaved off and a O is -Incases of supercoiling or 2 tangled plasmids doubled bonded, this turns in to uracil, one daughter -Cuts 1 dsDNA strand is mutated, instead of a CG it turns into UA -Covalently attaches to other strand and passes it thru the break
More Less

Related notes for BIO130H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit