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BIO130 Notes point form T1.docx

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Gillian Rowe

Model organisms -C-terminus: free carboxyl group (-) -short generation time -in chain, after condensation, amino turns to amide and -small adult form carboxyl turns to carbonyl -tractability -Cysteine: can from disulphide bonds with in chain -genetics well understood (creates hair pin structures), happens in oxidized situations (R’CH2SH, condensation reaction, CH S2SCH )2 Genetic code -order of AA’s are important, same chain reversed is -64 triplets chemically different -more than 1 codon per AA -universal(mostly) Genome -degenerate: variability, allows mutation tolerance -complexity not correlated with size -Start codon: AUG, encodes for Euk: Met, Prok: fMet -only 1.5% codes for proteins -Stop codons: UAA, UAG, UGA -50% is repetitive -did in RNA/DNA codons -added by Telomerase -similar are closer together (polarity, acidity) -sequence determined by RNA template in telomerase -Mutational steps: # of nucleotide changes to get to another codon Telomeres -at ends, when the primer is removed Nucleic Acids -portion of the 5’ daughter sequence (lagging strand) -monomers, nucleotides: base + sugar + phosphate(s) short -nucleoside: base + sugar -nothing can be added (5’ end) -U C The pyramids (pyrimidines: single ringed) -add a long repetitive sequence on the 3’ end of the -Pure Silver: Ag (purines: double ringed) parental sequence and base paring with itself to create -N-glycosidic bond: Base nitrogen 9(pur) or 1(pyr) to 1’ a “loop” sugar carbon -GC rich sequence -Phosphodiester bond: 5’ sugar carbon to 3’ phosphate -cancer cells have long -Purines always pair with pyrimidines, A=T/U, C≡G telomers -cells that replicate a lot Central Dogma have longer telomeres -Genome: DNA sequence of entire organism -Transcriptome: RNA sequence of entire organism -Proteome: complete set of proteins in cell or organism -Interactome: complete set of interactions between proteins and molecules in cell and organism -Metabolome: complete set of small metabellets (not DNA, RNA eg. Pyruvate, lactose) -Phenome: complete set of phenotypes PCR -dNTP’s, primers, DNA polymerase(72 degrees) - 1 dsDNA –Heat to Denature-> 2 ssDNA –decrease temperature-> primers aneal to segment of interest – heat to extend with taq polymerase-> thermostable polymerase extends strands, 2 dsDNA REPEAT Proteins -polypeptide: polymer -modification of telomerase RNA template can interfere -Amino Acid: monomer with cancer growth but can age someone fast (lose -Peptide bond: Condensation rxn, alpha amino group to important genetic information) alpha carboxyl group, R’ not involved -types of AA: NP, P uncharged, Pcharged basic or Topoisomerase Pcharged acidic -DNA supercoils same direction as helix, + supercoils -uses: regulation, signaling, structure, transport, -DNA supercoils in opposite direction, - supercoils enzyme -replication introduces supercoils in the + direction -N-terminus: free alpha amino group (+) Type 1: Stress Release -single strand breaks, rotates one stand of backbone Depurination: entire guanine or adenine is removed around from nucleotide, after replication, one daughter DNA is -has tyrosine at active site missing a base pair (reading frame shifted) -phosphodiester bond reform spontaneously Deamination Type 2: untangle and separate -the amine group on cytosine gets cleaved off and a O is -Incases of supercoiling or 2 tangled plasmids doubled bonded, this turns in to uracil, one daughter -Cuts 1 dsDNA strand is mutated, instead of a CG it turns into UA -Covalently attaches to other strand and passes it thru the break
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